- Wrongful acts — Reprisals — Countermeasures — Representation of states in international organizations — Acts of international organizations
Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law under the direction of Rüdiger Wolfrum.
1 At one time the term retorsion was used in a broad sense including all forms of retaliation by one State against another for all kinds of unwelcome acts by the latter. Today, retorsion covers only those reactions which do not interfere with the target State’s rights under international law. Reactions which do are nowadays termed reprisals or, in the usage of the International Law Commission (ILC)’s Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (‘Draft Articles’) of 2001, countermeasures. These are only permissible in response to an...