1 Parts of this entry have been reproduced from the book M Byers International Law and the Arctic (CUP Cambridge 2013). 2 The Arctic is variously defined as the area to the north of the tree-line, north of the 10° isotherm in July, or north of the Arctic Circle (66.5° latitude). In addition to territories belonging to the five Arctic Ocean coastal States—Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Norway, Russia, and the United States—parts of Sweden and Finland lie north of the Arctic Circle, as does a small island belonging to Iceland in addition to parts of that country’s...
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