1 Freedom of religion belongs to the most fundamental human rights. In fact, it is viewed as the oldest internationally accepted human right. Crucial for its development were both the religious civil wars of the 16th and 17th centuries and the philosophy of Enlightenment. The Religious Peace of Augsburg of 25 September 1555 established the principle of cuius regio, eius religio (‘each prince determines the religion of his subjects’) which implied the recognition of Protestant rulers as equal to their Catholic counterparts within the Empire (see also History of...
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