1 Prior to the 18th century, responsibility for disease or illness predominantly fell into the hands of private entities such as families, churches, and charities. Only to some extent, especially in cases of epidemic or pandemic diseases, did State institutions become active in order to control the spread of such diseases, mostly through quarantining. Nevertheless, a sense of responsibility and concern for the protection and improvement of health conditions within a community was prevalent throughout the history of mankind. At the centre of these communal health...
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