1 For a long time, the right to participate in elections has played only a marginal role in the international debate on human rights. Although the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) (‘UDHR’), in its Art. 21 (3) already contained a right to periodic and genuine elections, the competition of the socialist and the liberal democratic models of the State almost suppressed a scholarly debate on this issue. The design of the political system was perceived as part of the domaine réservé. Only after the end of the Cold War (1947–91) did international law scholars...
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