1 Expulsions and deportations are a State’s unilateral acts of ordering a person to leave its territory and, if necessary, of forcefully removing him or her. The terminology used at the domestic or international level is not uniform but there is a clear tendency to call expulsion the legal order to leave the territory of a State, and deportation the actual implementation of such order in cases where the person concerned does not follow it voluntarily. The International Law Commission (ILC) defines expulsion not only as ‘a formal act’ but also ‘conduct attributable...
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