1 The term ‘Peace of Westphalia’ principally denotes the Treaty of Peace between France and the Holy Roman Empire and the Treaty of Peace between the Holy Roman Empire and Sweden, signed on 24 October 1648 in the town of Münster in Westphalia, a territory in the north–west of Germany which today belongs to the German states North Rhine—Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The treaties had been negotiated in Münster’ and the nearby town of Osnabrück’. Accordingly, they are also referred to as the ‘Peace of Münster’ and the ‘Peace of Osnabrück’, respectively. The first...
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