1 After the Thirty Years’ War, the 1648 Peace of Westphalia (Westphalia, Peace of ; Peace Treaty between the Holy Roman Emperor and the King of France and their respective allies [signed 24 October 1648]  1 CTS 119) created a new political order in Europe which ended with the defeat of France after 20 years of war—1792 to 1813. Large areas of America which had already been incorporated in the European colonial empires were involved, together with their native populations, in the conflicts between their European mother countries (Colonialism). In 1815...
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