Vaughan Lowe, Antonios Tzanakopoulos
- Humanitarian intervention — Armed attack — Armed conflict — Conduct of hostilities — Civil and political rights — Gross violations
Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law under the direction of Rüdiger Wolfrum.
1 Intervention has been characterized as one of the ‘vaguest branches of international law’ and one whose study may leave ‘the impression that intervention may be anything from a speech of Lord Palmerston’s in the House of Commons to the partition of Poland’ ( PH Winfield ‘The History of Intervention in International Law’  3 BYIL 130 ). Its limitation to ‘humanitarian intervention’ does little to facilitate greater precision. 2 At the outset, one might distinguish between forcible and non-forcible ‘humanitarian’ intervention. There are non-forcible actions,...