1 In 1898 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia invited the leaders of 59 of the world’s sovereign States to participate in a peace conference unlike any other. Unusually for the 19th century, whose end the conference marked, it was called not for the great European powers to resolve a specific war or conflict or to divide territory or other spoils of war. Rather, what came to be known as the Hague International Peace Conference of 1899 reached, albeit modestly, beyond Europe and was convened as a restraint on war, to reduce the amount nations spent on armaments, and to...
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