1 Both history and daily news tell us that freedom of assembly has always been at risk. Authoritarian States of each ideological kind are paranoid about assemblies of their subjects (Authoritarianism). This was the case in the 19th century for many European States but is also true for the former communist States (German Democratic Republic 1957, Prague 1968), for China (Beijing 1989) and Russia (Moscow 2007), Egypt (Cairo 2011), or, more recently, Iran and Turkey, to name just a few. Without demonstrations staged against them, such governments tend to claim that...
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