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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]

Polluter Pays

Alan Boyle

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved.date: 25 January 2022

Individuals and non-state actors — Damages — Responsibility of states — International watercourses — Natural resources — Pollution — Precautionary principle — Marine environment, protection

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 Originating in a series of recommendations by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) starting in the 1970s, the ‘polluter pays’ principle is essentially an economic policy for allocating the costs of pollution or environmental damage borne by public authorities (for more details on the topic of this article see Birnie and Boyle Chapter 3). Although not initially conceived as such, it also has implications for the development of international and national law on liability for damage (Liability for Environmental Damage). As defined by...
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