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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]

Economic Coercion

Barry E Carter†

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved.date: 21 May 2022

Economic sanctions — Most-favoured-nation treatment (MFN) — Coercion & harassment

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 The term ‘economic coercion’ has traditionally been difficult to define. As a starting point, the term can be defined broadly to include the use, or threat to use, ‘measures of an economic—as contrasted with diplomatic or military—character taken to induce [a target State] to change some policy or practices or even its governmental structure’ (Lowenfeld 698). The State or other entity that is the object of the economic measure is sometimes called the target, while the State(s) that engage in these activities is sometimes termed the sender(s). 2 This beginning...
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