1 The revised version of this entry builds on the excellent previous version (May 2011) under the same title by René Lefeber, and has relied on many examples from this original version. The earlier version appeared as part of the online Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law until the publication of the current entry in 2020 (subsequently updated in 2022), which has been published at the same web address (URL) as the original entry. The original entry was also published in the 2013 print edition of the Encyclopedia (R Wolfrum (ed) The Max Planck...
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