1 All independent State[s] normally have a Head of State. Exceptions are temporary and due to extraordinary circumstances, as with a State defeated in an armed conflict, or where the State’s governmental structure has collapsed (Failing States).2 The nature of the office of Head of State is a matter for each State to determine for itself although occasionally the maintenance of a particular form of constitutional structure is the subject of a treaty obligation (Peace Treaties). Each State also determines whether its Head exercises substantive executive powers of...
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