Heads of State
Sir Arthur Watts
- Recognition of states — Sovereignty — Territory, non-self-governing — States, equality — Heads of state and other senior officials — Immunity from jurisdiction, states — Comity
Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law under the direction of Rüdiger Wolfrum.
1 All independent State[s] normally have a Head of State. Exceptions are temporary and due to extraordinary circumstances, as with a State defeated in an armed conflict, or where the State’s governmental structure has collapsed (Failing States).2 The nature of the office of Head of State is a matter for each State to determine for itself although occasionally the maintenance of a particular form of constitutional structure is the subject of a treaty obligation (Peace Treaties). Each State also determines whether its Head exercises substantive executive powers of...