1 The International Court of Justice (ICJ) recognized in Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Co Ltd (Belgium v Spain) (Second Phase) (Barcelona Traction Case) that there are two different categories of obligations under public international law. The Court stated that there are ‘obligations of a State towards the international community as a whole’ which are ‘the concern of all States’ and for whose protection all States have a ‘legal interest’. These obligations are fundamentally different from those existing vis-à-vis another State.2 Only one year before the...
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