1 It has been a not infrequent occurrence in international law that for long periods entities have existed, frequently claiming to be States or governments, which controlled more or less clearly defined territories without being recognized—at least by many States—as States or governments (Recognition). Some examples are the Confederation in the American Civil War (1861–65), the national government in the Spanish Civil War (1936–39), the German Democratic Republic before 1972, North Vietnam before the reunification of Vietnam, North Korea (Korea), and Taiwan. Other...
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