James R Crawford
- Responsibility of states — Customary international law — Peremptory norms / ius cogens — Diplomatic protection — Reparations — Circumstances precluding wrongfulness — Sovereignty
Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law under the direction of Rüdiger Wolfrum.
1 State responsibility is a cardinal institution of international law. It results from the general legal personality of every State under international law, and from the fact that States are the principal bearers of international obligations (see also States, Fundamental Rights and Duties). Moreover just as the law of State treaties is applied by analogy to the treaties of other international persons (see also Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties  [‘VCLT’]), so State responsibility provides the frame of reference for considering other forms of...