1Countermeasures are unilateral measures adopted by a State (the ‘injured State’) in response to the breach of its rights by the wrongful act of another State (the ‘wrongdoing’ or ‘target’ State) that affect the rights of the target State and are aimed at inducing it to provide cessation or reparations to the injured State. 2Countermeasures are an old institution of international law, though the term ‘countermeasure’ is itself of relatively recent adoption. There is evidence that the term had been employed in this sense since the early 20th century, but it did not...
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