The title of this chapter is deliberately generic. The purpose is to examine the law first as to precautions in attack and thereafter as to precautions against the effects of attacks.1 An important point should, however, be made from the outset. It is that the two sets of obligations, those binding attackers and those as to the effects of attacks, are essentially complementary. Although the failure of those in control of territory to take precautions required of them does not absolve attackers of their duties, and similarly in reverse, nevertheless the obligations...
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