In this chapter we consider the constraints that the law imposes on the gathering of the essential raw material that underpins all targeting decisions, namely intelligence. We will assess when that gathering amounts, in law of armed conflict terms, to espionage, and will develop the discussion to include the use of particular technologies for intelligence gathering and targeting purposes. Air surveillance fulfils a vital role in providing near real time imagery, for example in Afghanistan.1 Such activity is frequently undertaken using unmanned platforms, so we...
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