9 International Trade and Shipping Documents
Edited By: David J Attard, Malgosia Fitzmaurice, Ignacio Arroyo, Norman Martinez, Elda Belja
- Seafarers — Nationality of ships — Straits
This chapter explores various trade and shipping documents used in the international shipping industry. One such contract relates to the carriage of goods. Goods subject to international sales need to be carried and delivered. The chapter provides an overview of the standard terms used in trade practice. Special trade terms are used to simplify international transactions relating to the sale of goods; however, meanings may be subject to interpretation. In 1936, the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) established the Incoterms in an effort to standardize trade terms. Trade terms are divided into two groups: those which can be used for sea and inland waterway transport and the point of delivery and the place to which the goods are carried to the buyer are both ports; and those which can be used irrespective of the mode of transport selected and whether one or more than one mode of transport is employed.