- Modes of liability — Seafarers — Nationality of ships — Straits
This chapter describes the effects of the rising use of multimodal transport in the trading industry. Multimodal transport refers to the use of more than one mode of transport to carry goods to their destination. This practice, together with advances in technology such as the improved integration of different transport modes and more sophisticated automated cargo-handling facilities, have affected transportation practices both in efficiency and capability. However, many problems arise as a result of the lack of an international framework to regulate multimodal transport. The chapter discusses attempts by the international community to establish this framework, with the earliest attempt coming from the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT). It also proposes three types of liability systems that may be adopted by international trade law as the basis for a regulatory framework-the Uniform liability system, Network liability system, and Modified liability system.
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