The phenomenon of landlocked States (LLS) has persisted for a long time. There are currently forty-four LLS.1 The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the former Yugoslavia led to an increase in the number of LLS. In Africa, the break-up of Ethiopia into two States left Ethiopia landlocked. The recent split of Sudan has created a landlocked South Sudan State. It seems the phenomenon of being landlocked will be with us as long as there are nation States. Landlocked States are characterized by their lack of a sea coast.2 Generally they have little control over the...
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