Part II History, Ch.4 International Organizations, 1865–1945
Edited By: Jacob Katz Cogan, Ian Hurd, Ian Johnstone
- 1815 to World War I — Collective security — Membership of international organizations — International organizations, practice and procedure
This chapter traces the development of international organizations (IOs) from 1865–1945. It begins with the take-off period of the 1860s, when IOs began to shape access to the world market and the formation of transnational movements. It then elaborates on the ideological framework IOs were based on. Developed in the nineteenth century, the contemporary concept of internationalism served as an umbrella term that enumerated and linked different transnational movements. Within this ideological context, IOs became part of an increasingly connected world that gained visibility in international conferences, world's fairs and the activities of an international civil society. After World War I, the function and importance of IOs changed dramatically. The remainder of the chapter discusses the League of Nations as the first supranational body and forerunner of today's United Nations (UN); the influence of war and political crises on IOs; and the historicity of IOs and the conditions that influenced the creation of today's United Nations system.