- Migration — Asylum — Non-refoulement — International law and international relations
The general principles of international migration law are supplemented and detailed by more specialized treaty regimes. This chapter focuses on the conventions adopted under the auspices of the United Nations (UN) that deal specifically with refugees. The universal treaty regime of refugee protection is primarily governed by two specific instruments: the UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees of 28 July 1951 and its 1967 Protocol. Currently ratified by 147 states across the world, they establish a sophisticated body of international rules based on three parameters: (i) the refugee definition, (ii) the refugee status, and (iii) the principle of non-refoulement. Each of them unveils a subtle balancing act between the competence of the state to control access to its territory and the protection of the victims of human rights’ violations.