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Part I Mapping International Adjudicative Bodies, Ch.4 The Multiplication of International Courts and Tribunals After the End of the Cold War

Karen J Alter

From: The Oxford Handbook of International Adjudication

Edited By: Cesare P R Romano, Karen Alter, Yuval Shany

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved.date: 04 December 2021

Compulsory jurisdiction — Settlement of disputes — Human rights — International humanitarian law
When the Cold War ended in 1989, there were six permanent international courts plus the non-compulsory dispute settlement system of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The European Court of Justice (ECJ) offered the model of an active and effective international court. The other six international legal mechanisms did not inspire much enthusiasm or attention from litigants or observers. Today, however, there are at least two dozen permanent international courts (ICs) that have collectively issued over 37,000 binding legal judgments, more than 90...
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