1. For the purpose of discussion it is useful to divide the international rules on the protection of the civilian population and of individual civilians during armed conflict into two groups, which are the response to two distinct situations: (a) the rules providing protection to the civilian population or individual persons under the control of the adversary against violence or arbitrary acts; and (b) the rules providing protection of the civilian population against direct effects of military operations and other acts of hostility. The first group relates to the...
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