Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are a fixture of many contemporary treaty negotiations. Consider the effort to negotiate a successor agreement to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on climate change. Meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009 to hammer out a deal were 192 State delegations and 120 heads of State and government.1 Yet alongside these delegations, some of which comprised hundreds of diplomats and advisers, were nearly 1,000 private organizations and over 20,000 individuals seeking to influence the terms of agreement and shape broader public opinion about...
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