Legal texts are traditionally (and conveniently) applied with the aid of some good old Latin expressions: ratione personae (personal application), ratione materiae (material application), ratione temporis (temporal application), and ratione loci (spatial application).1 Although treaties may raise all four issues, the law of treaties does not address them equally. Neither the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) nor its 1986 companion takes an express position on the ratione materiae or the ratione personae issues. What subjects a treaty covers...
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