The international community in its modern shape is contemporaneous with the consolidation of States. States gradually evolved in Europe between the 12th and the 16th centuries. Modern States arose in England, France, Spain, and Portugal, consisting mainly of centralized power structures wielding exclusive political and moral authority as well as a monopoly of force over a population living in a more or less vast territory. According to the historian JR Strayer, what characterizes the modern State and differentiates it both from the ‘great, imperfectly integrated...
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