There is a long-standing controversy on whether the domestic law of WTO Members should give direct effect to the WTO agreements. This issue relates to the application of WTO agreements by national authorities and national courts in context with restrictive trade measures. Direct application of WTO law by domestic authorities and courts raises a number of conflicting considerations. On the one hand, deference to the WTO agreements avoids the violation of international obligations, trade conflicts, and possible sanctions which hurt domestic industries. All too...
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