The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement)1 applies to technical regulations such as labelling requirements and also extends to production-related standards (Annex 1 and 2). Technical rules are subject to the national treatment principle and the most-favoured-nation principle (Article 2.1). National Treatment requires ‘even-handedness’ of technical requirements. This standard is violated when a measure is designed or applied in a manner that amounts to arbitrary or unjustifiable, de jure or de facto discrimination.2 Under Article 2.2, technical...
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