Peace operations comprise all military (peacekeeping and peace enforcement) operations performed in support of diplomatic efforts to establish and maintain peace.1 Such operations generally do not take place during armed conflicts. Their aim is rather to prevent active hostilities and secure post-conflict peace-building. It is only in exceptional situations that peacekeepers, as noted in the 1994 UN Safety Convention2and in the 1999 Secretary-General’s Bulletin,3 may be engaged in enforcement action ‘as combatants’, in which case the relevant body of international...
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