Article 2(4) of the Charter of the United Nations1 (UN Charter) introduced for the first time a comprehensive ban on the use of force in international relations between states. Indeed, the use of force is prohibited outright, applying not only to the waging of war (as in the Briand-Kellogg Pact of 1928) but also to forcible measures short of war such as intervention, blockades, and reprisals. Moreover, the ban extends not only to the actual use of force but also to its threat. The prohibition is accompanied by a robust system of collective security embodied...
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