38.1 A treaty becomes binding through the expression of consent of the parties to be bound. This consent may be expressed by various means, notably signature, exchange of instruments constituting a treaty, ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession, or by any other means if so agreed.1 The treaty itself may provide that it is to enter into force upon signature, in which case the act of signature definitively expresses the consent of the signatory States to be bound by the treaty. In exceptional cases, the initialling of a text may also express the consent of...
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