The ‘treaty bodies’ established by many multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) represent a new form of international cooperation. These bodies, and, in particular, their ‘conferences of the parties’ (COPs), are not merely intergovernmental conferences since they are established by treaties as permanent organs and have subsidiary bodies and a secretariat, while they also differ from traditional inter-governmental organizations (IGOs). These new institutional arrangements grew out of the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. The first...
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