Since the early days of modern public international law, the state has been the most important subject thereof. However, today, the state neither is the sole, nor necessarily the primary, actor in international (environmental) relations. In recent years, the role of the state and, notably, the ability of the state to address environmental risks and threats have increasingly come to be scrutinized. While states’ standard setting remains important, commentators have argued that the ability and willingness of states to implement and enforce such standards have major...
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