The question of countermeasures in response to violations of obligations representing a general interest—also characterized as ‘collective’ countermeasures—number among the most controversial subjects in the field of State responsibility.1 There are essentially two sources of controversy. The first touches upon the view which has been formed of international responsibility. The term ‘collective countermeasures’ is understood as referring to measures which are in themselves unlawful but which could be adopted on an individual level by any State not individually...
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