The international legal framework for maritime activities has greatly evolved over the last 15 years and can today be expressed as encompassing three principles. First, the ‘perils of the sea’, the basis for the limitation of civil responsibility of the owner, remains a traditional principle in maritime law. This is specifically linked to the dangerous character of the maritime adventure. Thus, the French Commercial Code in the edition of the First Empire, which was in force until the 1960s, stated that: any owner of a ship must bear the civil liability for the...
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