A subject pursues by its own means, without the intervention of an external authority, the protection or performance of what it considers to be its right: this is what private justice consists of.1 Countermeasures form part of the framework of this ‘private justice’, as a peaceful means of inducing a State to comply with its obligations, in contrast to retaliation by force, which is moreover prohibited. Countermeasures are measures adopted by a State in response to a wrongful act committed by another State. As we will see, it is necessary to refine this definition...
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