The situations or circumstances in which one or more States may be held responsible for an internationally wrongful act are many and diverse.1 As suggested by the title of this Chapter, it is convenient to distinguish between circumstances where the internationally wrongful act is attributable to more than one State and circumstances where one State is implicated in the unlawful act of another State. The first category, where two or more States are jointly responsible, comprises two situations which are completely different. On the one hand, when States act...
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