In order for an act contrary to international law to be classified as internationally wrongful with the consequence of engaging State responsibility, the act must be attributable to the State. But the State, as an abstract entity, can only act with the aid of one or more persons that are classed, either generally or for the particular purpose, as State agents. For the purposes of attribution, the agents of the State used to be treated as identical with it. In the Moses case, a decision of the Mexico-United States Mixed Claims Commission, the arbitrator relied on...
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