This chapter is the first of two that explore the substantive rules that are applicable in non-international armed conflict. It focuses on the rules relating to the protection of civilians and persons hors de combat. Application of these rules to non-international armed conflict has a long and distinguished history. Rules of this sort were included in the instructions of General Dufour issued during the Swiss civil war in 1847 and are to be found in the Tratado de Regularización of 1820 concluded during the Colombian war of independence.1 It is also rules of this...
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