The laws and customs of war, including those that govern what are today described as non-international armed conflicts, are of ancient origin. They have been described as being ‘as old an institution as war itself’.1 The modern period of regulation of armed conflict dates back to the nineteenth century and it is from that period onwards that is the focus of this Part. However, the nineteenth, and much of the twentieth, centuries were characterized by a general reluctance on the part of states to regulate non-international armed conflicts through international law....
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