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The Oxford Handbook of International Trade Law edited by Bethlehem, Daniel; McRae, Donald; Neufeld, Rodney; Van Damme, Isabelle (8th January 2009)

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Edited By: Daniel Bethlehem, Donald McRae, Rodney Neufeld, Isabelle Van Damme

From: The Oxford Handbook of International Trade Law

Edited By: Daniel Bethlehem, Donald McRae, Rodney Neufeld, Isabelle Van Damme

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From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2015. All Rights Reserved. Subscriber: null; date: 06 April 2020

(p. 773) Index

n = footnote.
Aarhus Convention (1996) 682
Abbott, Roderick 494, 497n
Abi-Saab, Georges 324, 337
accountability
civil society’s demands for 672, 674–5, 692
accountancy sector 167
ACP (African, Caribbean, and Pacific) Countries 86n, 97, 245
preferential treatment 499, 501n
activism, judicial 473–7
identification 474–5
inappropriate accusations of 474–5
(lack of) international impact 476–7
‘adequate and reasoned explanation’, criterion of 407–8, 425–6
Adlung, Rudolf 176
admissibility 309–10, 312
Advisory Centre on WTO Law (ACWL) 293–4, 493–4, 493n
affirmative defences 359
Afghanistan 743
Africa
damage done by protectionist policies 575
political instability 579
African Group (in WTO) 491n, 493n
African Growth and Opportunity Act (US 2000) 499
Agenda 21 509
Agreement on Import Licensing 108
Agreement on Rules of Origin (AROO) 108
Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) 107–8, 394, 396n, 397
agriculture 19
Agreement on 107–8, 189–90, 291, 491, 515n, 585, 658
Committee on 88
and developing countries 575–6
disputes 658
exclusion from GATT 487
as focus of SPS measures 599–600
international negotiations 39
market access 26–7
and RTAs 249
subsidies 26–7, 513, 575–6
trade liberalization 20–1
trade remedies 582n
Airbus 120n, 364
Al Qaeda 743
alcoholic beverages, trade in 414
geographical indications 198–9
Alexandrov, Stanimir 446
Alien Tort Claims Act (US 1789) 735
Almaty Guidelines 682–3
‘alternative plausible view’, as criterion 426–7
American Law Institute 461n
amicus curiae briefs 66–7, 124–5, 286n, 291, 291n, 295, 369–70, 474, 533, 652, 675–6, 689–90
defined 364
objections to 461n, 689, 690
Andean Community 158
Andean Trade Preference Act (US 1991) 499
animal welfare 531
Annan, Kofi 730
Annecy Round (1949) 16, 36n
anthropocentricity, of trade community 506–7
anti-competitive regulation 197–8, 205
Anti-Dumping Act (US 1916) 657–8
(p. 774) Anti-Dumping Agreement (1979) 17, 83, 97–8, 108–9, 290–1, 292n, 349, 361, 468, 469–71, 648, 657
Committee on 109
labour provisions 557
and standard of review 362, 382–3nn, 386n, 387–8, 390–6, 397n, 398, 401, 403, 423, 433–4
structure 394–5
anti-dumping measures 389, 469–71, 487, 657–8, 659
relationship with competition law 661–4
Antimonopoly Law (China 2007) 654
Antimonopoly Law (Japan 1998) 654
antitrust law 650–2, 658, 660–1
relationship with anti-dumping 661–4
APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) 242
Appellate Body 66–7, 280–93
additional memoranda/procedures 288n, 370
admissibility rulings 312–13
(alleged) political bias 281–2
amicus curiae briefs 369–70, 461n
applicable law 315–20
availability 282–3
backgrounds 282
on burden of proof 358–9
closed hearings 296
commentary on panel procedure 358–9, 361–2
completing the analysis 370–1
composition 280–1, 284, 533
creation 347, 423, 530
criticisms 74, 122, 122n, 124–6, 281–2, 292, 461n, 473–7, 690
decision-making process 287–8
departures from rulings 289–91
direct review of Members’ measures 422n
dissenting opinions 285, 547n
on environmental issues 516–17, 517n, 518, 519–20, 529–31, 533, 537
Exchange of Views 287–8
fees 283
function 421–2, 423, 425, 432
on health issues 603–4, 611–15
on human rights-related issues 586–8
inherent powers 306–15
institutional role 432
on international standards 601
jurisdiction 299–300, 301, 302, 306–15
on labour standards/trade restrictions 546–7, 550–1, 565–6
legal precedents 289, 339
legal status 277–8
mandate 289
membership 281–4, 286–7, 304–5
methodology see separate main heading
on national treatment 758–64
nationalities 281, 287
procedural issues 368–71
procedure 288–9, 365–71, 425;
overview 365–8
proposed reforms 283–4
quasi-judicial functioning 304–5
remand power, lack of 370–1
reports: adoption 123, 306, 368;
binding status 448–9;
drafting 366–7;
implementation 371–5, 496;
length 282, 282n
review of panel’s findings 421–33;
application of law 429–33;
factual 423–8;
legal 422–3
on risk assessment 603–4
rotation of personnel 286–7
scope of review 368–9
Secretariat 294, 425
selection 281
significance of decisions 289, 291–3
size 284
standards of review 395–6, 417–20, 421–33;
commentary on 383n, 399, 401–2, 406–7, 420–1;
deferential 424, 430
strengths 284–5
term of service 283
time frame 284, 284n, 367–8
Working Procedures 285–6, 365–6, 689
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development 716
arbitration 371–2, 373–4
(p. 775) Argentina 199, 259, 273n, 334n, 335n, 606, 624, 692
ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations) 81, 264, 757
Framework Agreement on the ASEAN Investment Area 633–4
assets, freezing 744
Athens 7
Australia 190, 199, 499n, 629
conduct of international disputes 224, 449–51, 462n, 605
FTAs 202
Austria-Hungary, tariffs 11
balance/balancing
of national regulations 226–8
of payments 146–50, 155, 173, 582–3
of powers 94, 382
Balance of Payments (BOP) Committee 87–8
bananas, trade/tariffs 86n, 97, 180–1, 350n, 440, 455, 501
Bangladesh 490
Barral, Welber 530n
Basel Convention on the Control of the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes (1989) 510–11, 519, 522
Beeby, Christopher 284n
Belarus 499n
Belgium 531, 546, 548, 556
Benin 575
Bhagwati, Jagdish 18, 243
Bierce, Ambrose 727n
Biodiversity Convention (1992) 334–5, 334n, 517, 535n
Biosafety Protocol (2000) 334–5, 335n
BITs (bilateral investment treaties) 629–40, 740–1
contrasted with WTO approach 629, 636, 643–4
dispute settlement 638–40
expropriation 636–8
minimum standard of treatment 634–6, 640
non-discrimination 630–4
proliferation 629, 629n, 641
standard provisions 629–30
US model 621–2, 632, 636
Blakeney, Michael 199–200
Boeing 120n, 364
Bolivia 632
border tax adjustments 520–1, 526, 547n, 608
Bown, Chad P. 482–3, 492n, 497n
Brazil 2, 40n, 113, 191, 244–5, 257–8, 272n, 273n, 484n, 559, 624
conduct of international disputes 324, 431–2, 462n, 517, 531n, 614–16, 691–2
tariff levels 136
use of dispute settlement system 490
Bretton Woods Conference (1944) 14, 32–3
Breyer, Stephen G. 652
Brundtland Report (1987) 509
Brussels Ministerial Meeting (1990) 25
Budget, Finance and Administration (BFA) Committee 87–8
Buergenthal, Thomas 333n
burden of proof 291, 358–9, 764–5, 768
Burkina Faso 575
Burundi 709–10, 709n
‘California Effect’ 509
Canada 40, 113, 199, 233, 273n, 295–6, 499n, 624
conduct of international disputes 418–19, 430, 475, 605, 606, 623–4, 658, 691–2
relations with US 244–5, 259–60, 263–4, 623–4
trade reform 22
treaty participation 334n, 335n, 562, 629, 635
capacity-building 686–7
Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (US 1983) 499
CARICOM (Caribbean Community) 158
Cass, Deborah 70–3, 126
cassation, courts of 302
Chad 575
Chang, Ha-Joon 16n
Charnovitz, Stephen 525, 533n
Chesterman, Simon 713n
Chevalier, Michel 10
(p. 776) Chief Executive Board (WTO/UN) 720
Chile 199, 290n, 317, 414, 484n
China 2, 82, 179, 199, 245, 427, 484n
accession to WTO 43, 97
competition law 654
conduct of international disputes 190
international trade negotiations 40n, 113
labour issues 561
market economy 648
Chinese Taipei 199
Churchill, Winston 247
CIEL (Center for International Environmental Law) 678
CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, 1973) 510, 514, 519, 522, 525, 535
civil society 673–8
criticisms of WTO/corporations 730
diversity of views 672–3, 677
objections to active role 674–5, 675
relationship with WTO 66–7, 672, 692–3
role in international trade law 2 see also NGOs
Classical Theory (of economics) 8–9
clothing, production 178–9
Cobden, Richard 9–10
Codex Alimentarius 92, 221, 522, 546, 555, 601
collective supervision (of WTO procedures) 350–1
Colombia 350n, 493, 624
comity, positive/negative 666, 666n
Committee on Regional Trade Agreements 251–2
Committee on Trade and Development (CTD) 87–8
Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE) 516, 534–5
Committee on Trade in Financial Services 176n, 177
Common Market (Europe)
role in international negotiations 16–17, 18
Companies Act (UK 2006) 732
compensation, payment of 123n, 372–3, 452, 453, 457
claims for 455
for expropriation 637, 638, 644
competition laws/policy 205, 647–67
appropriateness of WTO as forum 655
choice of jurisdiction 656
common ground with WTO policies 664–5
extraterritorial application 649–50
harmonization 197–8
international cooperation 664–6
national/regional laws/cases 650–4
national variations 654–5
objectives 647
private vs governmental restraints 656
provisions in WTO agreements 648–9
relationship with anti-dumping 661–4
and RTAs 241–2
trade remedies 659–64
and voluntary export restraints 659–61
compliance 292–3, 371–5
evidence of 420–1
inducing 453–4
international law and 439
and municipal law 454–7
proceedings 373
rates 453, 688–9 see also non-compliance
computer equipment, trade in 179, 663–4
tariffs 24
concessions, suspension of 374, 452
problems, as effective remedy 452–3, 457
conciliation, procedures 466–7
Condliffe, John 7
Conference on the Illicit Trade of Small Arms and Light Weapons (2001) 717
Congo, Democratic Republic of 744
consensus, requirement of
in GATT 52, 272, 515n
‘reverse’ 49, 272, 306, 357n
in WTO 42–3, 52, 88n, 474
consent theory 51
consistency, requirement of 224–5, 422n, 444–6, 531n, 544, 605, 623–4
exceptions (labour-related) 549–50
constitutionalism, WTO and 70–4, 752–4
consultation
criticisms of process 465n
(p. 777) requests for 350n, 351–3, 461n
requirement of 465
Consumers’ Union (US) 660
Copenhagen Summit on Social Development (1995) 593–4
copycat products 591n
Corinth 7
Corn Laws (UK 1815) 10, 580n
corporate accountability 725–35
codes of conduct 557, 733–4
defined 725–6
proposed mechanisms 739–45;
dispute settlement 739–42;
punitive 742–5
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 728–35
defined 728
incentives 731
questions raised by 728–31
cost-benefit balancing 142–6, 154–5
cost-effectiveness test 145–6, 154–5
Costa Rica 199, 366n
Cotonou Agreement (2000) 239, 499, 501n
Cottier, Thomas 115n, 188
Council for Trade in Goods (CTG) 86–7, 250, 252
Council for Trade in Services (CTS) 86–7, 168–9
Council for Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Council) 86–7
Council of Europe 81, 89
counsel
in Appellate Body hearings 288–9, 291
in panel hearings 364
countermeasures, imposition 373–4, 389, 395–6, 441, 452–4, 659
effectiveness 453
proportionality 452 see also concessions, suspension of
courts/tribunals
admissibility rulings 309–10, 312–13
powers 300–1
right to determine own jurisdiction 306–7nn, 306–9 see also names of institutions
CPA (Coalition Provisional Authority) (US/UK, in Iraq) 713–16
Croley, Steven 388
Cuba 484n, 624
customary law 51, 578n
investment rules based in 635
customs unions 63–6, 238, 239–40, 246, 757
defined 240, 248
Customs Valuation Agreement (1994) 108, 663–4, 663n
Czech Republic 640
damages, awards for 644
Davey, William J. 357n, 388n, 419, 483, 489–90, 496
de novo review
alternatives to 402–3
by Appellate Body 422–3, 429
defined 399
examples 400–3
exclusion 390–1, 393, 396–7, 398–9, 405, 409, 429
justification 386
requirement/permissibility 389, 410–16, 433–4
Decision on More Favourable Treatment, Reciprocity and Fuller Participation of Developing Countries see ‘Enabling Clause’
decision-making, vertical transfer of powers 679–80
deference, as standard of review
Appellate Body, to panels’ findings 424, 430
panels, to Members’ findings 389–90, 394–6, 397, 398–9, 403, 409–10, 416–20
WTO, to UN law 720
del Carmen Dominguez, Maria 166, 173, 176
deregulation 583, 590–1
Desertification Convention (1996) 682
developed countries
CSR in 731–3
domination of OECD 628–9
environmental regulation 507, 513
protection of economic interests 487
trade information networks 494–5
treatment of preferential rules 498–9
(p. 778) developing countries 482–503
calls for reform of system 484–8
competition law 665–6
complaints under GATS 169–70
concerns regarding NGOs 676, 680, 692
concessions by/to, shortage of 487–8
conflicts with developed world 19–20, 40, 487–8, 507, 513, 624–5, 749
criticisms of Appellate Body 124–5
CSR in 733–5
defined 485
and dispute settlement system:
constraints on 490–7;
levels of participation 272n, 461, 489–90, 492–3, 497;
reluctance to use 482–3, 497;
special rules relating to 350, 355
and environmental issues 507, 513, 522, 526–7
and human rights 573, 575, 581
impact of protectionism 575, 581
implementation problems/rates 496–7
and intellectual property issues 188–9, 191, 205
lack of trade information services 483, 494–5
legal expertise/assistance: lack of 483, 491–4;
provision for 493n
marginalization 483, 486–7, 628–9
membership of GATT 84n
NGOs representing 676, 677–8
objections to PPM regulation 230
opposition to GATT proposals 19–20
positive role in GATT 24–5
preferential rules 483–4, 498–502, 565–7
proposals for WTO reform 279–80
role in WTO 24–7
share of world market 483, 495–6
size of domestic market 483, 495–6
trade options 582–3
and TRIMS Agreement 624–5
vulnerability to retaliation 483, 497
development
agencies 494–5
relationship with trade 482 see also developing countries
Dillon Round (1960–1) 16, 17, 36n
Director-General (of WTO) 58, 81, 88–9, 94, 116–8, 126–7, 365
candidates 686
role in dispute settlement 274–5, 285, 462, 492
selection of panels/arbitrators 275, 275n, 277, 279, 281, 371
disaggregation, calls for 752
discrimination
allegations 765–6
de jure vs de facto 587–8
human rights-based 586–8
prohibition of 211–14
RTAs and 243, 616
dispute settlement (under WTO) 51, 74–5, 121–6, 270–96, 438–58
adoption of reports 121–2, 123, 272–3n, 350–1
alternative methods 350, 464–7
appeals procedure 49–50, 287–9, 347, 365–71;
filing of Notice 365, 368, 369
;
oral hearing 366;
right of either party 365–6;
scope 420–1;
third-party participants 290n, 366, 366n (see also Appellate Body)
applicable law 299, 315–20
arbitration 371–2, 373–4
binding status of decisions 439, 442–6, 457, 502
caseload 489–90
civil participation in 688–90
comparison with other international courts/tribunals 303–315
competition-related cases 655–64
compliance 123, 292–3;
contribution to international law 67–9
costs 491
countermeasures 373–4
(p. 779) economic model 492n
and environmental concerns 475–6
function 446–8
future needs 294–6, 466–7, 533–4, 642–3, 644
GATS and 169–70
handling of ambiguities 468–71, 477
implementation/enforcement 98–102, 123, 220–2, 347–8, 350–1, 371–5, 438–58, 496, 688–9;
problems of 463–4, 471–2;
surveillance 375;
time frame 371–3
increasing complexity 491–2
inherent powers 306–15
initiation of proceedings 351–3
institutional structure 274–94
international significance 438, 688–9
and judicial overreaching 473–7
jurisdiction 299–315, 317–8, 349, 386, 444, 553
languages 367, 395n
media coverage 439–40
multiple challenges (to same measure) 356
mutually agreed solutions, desirability 462–3
open hearings 295–6, 363, 691–2
origins 270–1
participation, limits 364
positive achievements/comments 271–2, 345, 375–6, 438, 472–3, 477–8
procedures 28, 42, 43, 44, 345–6, 348–76, 462–3, 491
proposed reforms 273, 279, 283–4, 295–6, 750
quasi-judicial character 90, 220, 278, 287, 304, 464–5
relationship with international law 318–20, 330, 457
relationship with national autonomy 123, 220–2
requests for consultation 350n, 351–3, 461n
review (1997–9) 375–6
role of counsel 288–9
scope, limits set on 553
simplification 492–3
standard of review 379, 381–435
surveillance procedures 123
third parties, rights of 362–3
time frames 278–9, 284, 284n, 357, 367–8, 371–3, 465;
acceleration 278n, 350, 492
transparency 691–2
treaty interpretation and 315–17, 321–41, 463–4, 467–71;
special principles 336–8
TRIPS and 189–92
underlying principles 271–3
uniformity of procedure 349–50
uniqueness 27, 49–50, 70, 341–2
Doha Development Agenda (2001) 25, 91–2, 117, 238, 273, 375–6, 688
Doha Ministerial Decision on Implementation-Related Issues and Concerns (2001) 96–9, 106, 110–11
Doha Ministerial Declaration (2001) 91, 96n, 105, 193, 338n, 513, 534n, 685–6
Doha Round 25–8, 75, 131, 136, 242, 264
breakdown of negotiations 25–8, 41, 138, 155, 171, 461–2, 666, 749
dominant principles 85
GATS and 104, 166, 167–9
IP negotiations 190, 196, 198–9
NGO involvement 67
Dole Commission 477
Dominican Republic 199
conduct of international disputes 149
Drake, William J. 158–60, 171
DSB (Dispute Settlement Body) 43, 60, 86, 100–2, 121–3, 272, 273, 347–8, 442–3, 463
enforcement role 452
institutional role 275–6, 281
procedural role 350–2, 354, 365
Rules of Conduct 101–2
special meetings 354, 368
surveillance role 375
(p. 780) DSU (Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes, 1994) 42, 49–50, 68–9, 86, 100–2, 123, 250–1, 253, 274, 289, 293, 644
alternative initiatives 493–4
treaty interpretation 315–20, 322–6, 328, 342
authorization of countermeasures 373–4
on compliance/remedies 442, 451, 457
creation 271
developing-country provisions 489, 492–3
on judicial process 462–3, 465–6
on jurisdiction 299, 303–4, 311, 312, 313
lacunae 291, 294–5, 315–17
on panel/Appellate procedures 345, 346–50, 351–2, 353–4, 359–60, 361, 363, 367, 368–9, 371, 373–4
proposed reforms 273, 317, 375–6, 465, 491n, 530n
Rules of Conduct 355–6, 365
on standards of review 382–3, 385–6, 387–8, 396–7, 409, 419, 422–4, 425–6, 427–8, 431
due process 291
dumping margins, calculation 469–71, 469n
Dunkel, Arthur 117
Dunoff, Jeffrey L. 71, 535n
East Timor 697, 710, 711–12
ECHR (European Court of Human Rights) 533n
ECJ (European Court of Justice) 71, 142–3, 443n, 533n, 653, 752
‘eco-duty’ 520–1
‘eco-Imperialism’ 522
economic activity, problems of classification 179–80
economic partnership agreements (EPAs) 239, 562
ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) 719
Ecuador 199, 496
Edwards, Robert 641n
Eeckhout, Piet 139n
effectiveness, principle of 328–30
efficient breach, theory of 446–7
Egypt 199–200
Ehlermann, Claus-Dieter 285, 287, 339n, 493–4
Ehring, Lothar 339n
El Salvador 199
‘embedded liberalism’ 584n, 591
emergency measures 151–4, 202n
employment, international targets 541
‘Enabling Clause’ (Decision on Differential and More Favourable Treatment, Reciprocity and Fuller Participation of Developing Countries) 253–4, 359, 486, 499, 500–1, 565–7
endangered species, trade in 510, 512
Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) 620, 643
environment/environmental issues 475–6, 506–38
complementarity with trade regime 506, 507, 509–10, 516, 537
conflicts with trade regime 506–7, 512–13, 528–38;
indirect 512–13
dedicated tribunals 533–4, 533n
developed vs developing countries 507, 513, 522, 526–7
future needs 533–4, 535–7
global organization/court, proposed 534, 536–7
governmental role 512
growth of interest in 506, 513–14
interpretation of international law 532
negative impact of trade 508–9, 510–11;
indirect 511
NGO activism 677–8
positive impact of trade 509–10
provision in international agreements 515n
transboundary/global harm 520–1, 532
WTO’s interaction with 529–37 see also environmental measures
‘Environmental Kuznets Curve’ (EKC) 510
environmental measures/policies
coercive 520, 521n, 523
compatibility with trade regime 518–28, 535–6
extraterritorial 518, 524–5
function 518, 520–2
(p. 781) impact on corporations 724
impact on trade (direct vs indirect) 512–13, 518–20
national variations 513
product vs process, as target 518, 525–7
scientific support 518, 527–8
unilateral/multilateral 518, 522–4, 531
epidemics 97
equivalence, requirement of 222–3, 605–6
Esty, Daniel 506–7
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) 103
European (Economic) Community/Union (EEC/EC/EU) 238, 290n, 499n
‘banana waivers’ 86n, 97, 180–1, 350n, 440, 455
compared with WTO 74, 89, 752–4
competition law 653, 654–5
compliance 454
conduct of international disputes 64–5, 190–1, 295–6, 408, 410–1, 415, 415n, 419, 493, 606, 691–2;
frequency of appearances 287
constitutional structure 752–4
creation 247–8
environmental policy 531
exports, impact in developing countries 575
GATS schedule 558–9
human rights law 241–2, 578
intergovernmental meetings/decisions 103
international trade negotiations 40, 113, 624
labour questions 561
legal system 121n, 142–3, 419, 454, 456, 752–3
mediation requests 274, 350n, 493
Member State variations 415, 415n, 528
special status under GATT 63
tariff levels 18, 135–6
trade agreements 244–5, 256–8
trade law/policy 89n, 419, 455, 501n
Treaty 89n, 103, 158n, 454, 754–5
and TRIPS 187, 199
European Parliament 89, 89n, 94n
Eurostat 174
Evans, Gail 199–200
‘Everything But Arms’ schemes 499
evidence, at panel hearings 359–61
admissibility 360, 362, 412–13
Appellate Body’s review of 426–7
margin of discretion 361
exceptions
as basis of WTO approach 2
general 585, 609
human rights and 584–6
exchange controls 11–12
exchange measures 147–8
case law 148–50
exhaustion (of IP rights) 195–6, 205
export(s)
balance with imports 623
performance requirements 623–4
restrictions 625, 700
unfair practices 659 see also voluntary export restraints
expropriation
definition/permissibility 636–7
incidences 623
indirect 637
prohibition 636, 637–8, 644
remedies 637, 638, 642–3
extraterritoriality 228–31, 233–4
of competition law 649–50
of environmental measures 518, 524–5
facts/factual findings 388–421, 475
Anti-Dumping Agreement and 390–6
distinguished from legal/mixed questions 432–3
evaluation 391, 424, 434
jurisdiction over 302
mixed with legal questions 391–2, 397, 405, 421, 429–33
national authorities as first trier 389–91, 394–6, 399, 434
(p. 782) plausibility, as criterion 426–7
rejection 390–1
review by Appellate Body 423–8;
procedural 425–8;
substantive 423–5
review/comment 393
scope of inquiry 397
WTO panels as first trier 389, 409–10, 412, 425, 434
fairness, as economic/legal criterion 575–7, 635, 644, 737–8
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) 88, 90n
Fassbender, Bardo 72
Fast-Track Authority (US) 83–4, 89
FDI (foreign direct investment) 623, 627
defined 621
role in globalization 22–3
Federal Trade Commission (US) 657
fisheries
disputes relating to 133–4, 410–1, 475–6, 512, 515, 521n, 526, 605
NGO activism 677–8
subsidies 688
Fitzmaurice, Gerald 310n
Foreign Affiliates Trade Statistics 173
Foreign Trade Antitrust Improvement Act (US 1982) 650–1, 652
France 246–7
free trade movement 10
health measures 613–4, 759, 763, 767–8
labour law 551n, 554n
tariffs 11
free trade
arguments for 8–9
environmental impact 508–9, 535
national policies 9–10, 13
relationship with regulatory autonomy 210
Free Trade Area of the Americas 245
free trade areas/agreements (FTAs) 63–6, 238, 239–40, 755
coverage 248–50
defined 240, 248
investment provisions 641
popularity 561–2, 641, 666
TRIPS and 201–3
freedom of expression, right of 681–2
Friedman, Milton 726
Friedmann, Wolfgang 72
Friends of the Earth International 677–8
Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation Treaties 631–2, 634–5
‘G-20’ group 40, 40n
Gaja, Giorgio 61n
Gardner, Richard N. 14n
GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services, 1994) 42, 62, 99, 158–84, 589, 595
2000 negotiations 167–9
application 178–81, 179n
basic features 160–2
competition provisions 648
conflicts between principles 254–5
creation 158, 171–2
criticisms 183
on deregulation 590–1
dispute settlement 169–70
and Doha Round 167–9
environmental provisions/interpretations 515n, 517, 531n
Fifth Protocol 163
Fourth Protocol 163
future needs 181–4
GATS Council, powers/practices 102–4, 168–9, 173
investment provisions 626–8, 634, 642
labour provisions 558–9
on preferential rules 498–9
problems 170–84
‘Reference Paper’ 163
retention of status quo 627–8
revised negotiating guidelines 168
on RTAs 64–6, 250, 252, 254–5
on safeguards 163–5, 469, 469n
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 1947) 2
achievements 55–6
Analytical Index 34
compliance 449, 453
conflicts over 19–20
as contract 55, 68–9, 130
Contracting Parties 82–3, 484, 514;
(p. 783) meetings 46, 270
creation/objectives 14–16, 18, 20, 50, 52, 130, 752
‘definitive’ application, projected 34–5
developing-country provisions 484–5
Director-General, role of 47
dispute settlement 45–50, 55–6, 60, 270–1, 346, 482;
problems 48–9;
types of cases 47–8
employment provisions 541
environmental provisions 513–4
evolution into WTO system 38–9, 41–2, 52, 55–6, 80–1, 111–12, 126, 270–1, 278, 345–8, 438, 465, 482
exceptions 34–5
Framework Agreements 17–8
General Council 36, 83, 340
global importance 45, 130
health measures 610–11
investment provisions 622–4
(lack of) institutional structure 82
lack of transparency 687–8, 689–90, 692
and liberalization 584
membership 84n, 113;
qualifications for 63
negotiations 16–8 (see also names of Rounds)
panels 46–7
problems (‘birth defects’) 31, 48–9, 52, 82–3, 99–100, 247, 271–2
Protocol of Provisional Application (PPA) 31, 34, 39n, 748
Secretariat 35–6, 58, 118
Working Group on Environmental Measures and International Trade (EMIT) 514
Working Group on the Export of Domestically Prohibited Goods and Other Hazardous Substances 514
Working Parties 270
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 1994) 38–9, 42, 62, 97–8, 210–34
on affirmative defences 359
anti-dumping measures 657
application 178–9, 231–4
on balancing 227–8
compared with other Agreements 210, 231–3
competition provisions 648
on consistency requirement 225
Contracting Parties: defined 149–50;
disagreements between 250–1
controversial elements 154–5
core principles 154, 161, 756–7
corporate provisions 735–6
dispute settlement 189–90, 352
on emergency measures 151–4
environmental provisions/implications 516–7, 519, 530–2
on financial measures 146–8
health measures 598, 602, 606–16
on import restrictions 131–4
as ‘incomplete contract’ 130
international (legal) status 68–9
on international standards 222
investment provisions 626, 634, 642
on jurisdiction 255–60
labour provisions 544, 545–53
on levels of protection 220
on mutual recognition 223
on national treatment 140–2, 211–13, 243, 756–7
on natural resources 334
on necessity test 142–3, 146, 215–17, 232
on the precautionary principle 226
on preferential rules 498–9
on safeguards 151–4, 262–3, 468–9, 471
on standard of review 414–16, 434
on tariff reduction 134–8
trade instruments 131–8
treatment of developing countries 253–4
violations (alleged) 191–2, 212, 475, 758–9, 762–3, 764
(p. 784) General Council (of WTO) 43, 57, 112, 166, 250, 290–1, 348
composition 85, 100–2
general powers 86–9, 94–5, 97–9, 98n
relationship with specialized organs 115
role in consultation/cooperation 684–5
role in dispute settlement 122, 124–6, 274
role in sanctions 706
special meetings 474
specific powers 99–100
treaty interpretation 339, 340, 386n
Geneva Conference (1947) 33, 81–2
Geneva Convention on Import and Export Prohibitions and Licences (1927) 12
Geneva Round (1956) 16, 36n
Genoa Conference (1922) 12
geographical indications (GIs) 190, 198–200, 205, 419
Germany 246–7
competition law 654
tariffs 11
Ghana 575
Global Environmental Organization 536–7
globalization, economic 22–3, 45, 568, 641, 650, 664–5, 750
communications and 674
GMOs (genetically modified organisms), cases involving 120n, 283, 472, 528, 587–8, 606
governance, global 674–5, 678–83
importance of participation 683
government procurement 163, 166
Government Procurement Agreement (1994) 559–60, 715, 715n
Committee 559–60
schedules 560
‘grandfather rights’ 34
Greece (Ancient)
trade between city-States 7
‘Green Room’ diplomacy 40, 113–14
Griller, Stefan 443n
‘Group of 18’ 113
GSPs (Generalized Systems of Preferences) 239, 485–6, 499, 500–1, 565
‘GSP plus’ 566–7
national revisions/conditions 737, 738
reduced effectiveness 487
Guatemala 199
Guidelines for International Operations 657–8
Hague Regulations Concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land (1907) 716n
Hainsworth, Susan 482
Hamilton, Alexander 11
harmful goods, exclusion of 606–8
harmonization
competition laws 197–8
environmental: downward 511;
upward 509, 511
national standards 221–23, 234–5
Havana Charter on Trade and Employment (1948) see ITO (International Trade Organization): draft charter
Havana Conference (1948) 33, 81–2
Hawley-Smoot Act (US 1930) 13, 15n
hazardous products, production/trade 510–1, 512
health care/protection 598–616
appropriate levels of protection 605–6
extraterritorial rights/responsibilities 229–31
and GATT 1994 606–16
international regulation 97, 192–5, 218–20
international standards 600–2
and labour standards 551–2
national levels 380
qualification requirements of measures 610–16
‘right’ to 593
and SPS Agreement 598–606
State responsibility for 598
trade remedy measures 411–14
Heckscher-Ohlin theorem 579n
Higgins, Rosalyn 305, 333
Hippler Bello, Judith 123n
Hoekman, Bernard 175, 482–3, 492n, 497n
Honduras 199
service industries 178–9
(p. 785) Hong Kong 63, 199
Howse, Robert 71, 753n
Hudec, Robert E. 139n, 483–4, 527–8
human rights 572–95, 681–2
abuses, as grounds for trade sanctions 586–8, 742–3
compatibility with UN operations 703, 711–12
and corporate responsibility 730, 737–8
economic analysis based on 577–8, 580–1, 595
impact of liberalization on 573, 574, 578–83
institutions 592–4
justifications 581n
and labour standards 737–8
prioritization 241–2, 595
relationship with trade 572–3, 592–4, 595, 736–7
and TRIPS 203–4, 584
in WTO agreements 584–6, 592–3
IAMB (International Advisory and Monitoring Board) 716–7
ICC (International Criminal Court) 315
ICI (Imperial Chemical Industries) 651
ICITO (Interim Commission for the International Trade Organization) 35–6, 82, 82n, 118
ICJ (International Court of Justice) 69, 284n, 285, 358, 456–7, 532, 574–5, 577, 724
Chamber for Environmental Matters 533
ICN (International Competition Network) 665
ICPAC (International Competition Policy Advisory Committee ) 665
ICSID (International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes) 315, 629, 631n, 639
ICTSD (International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development) 678
IGOs (inter-governmental organizations) 92
IISD (International Institute for Sustainable Development) 678, 740–1
ILC (International Law Commission)
Draft Articles on State Responsibility 70, 440–2, 444, 450, 451, 452, 454, 457
Draft Articles on the Law of Treaties 321
Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations 60–1
Fragmentation Study Group 303n, 319, 331, 332–3
ILO (International Labour Organization) 40, 61, 117, 540, 541–2, 593, 685
Administrative Tribunal 119–20
Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations 552
Constitution 90n, 114n
Convention on Forced Labour 552
Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour 563, 563n, 588
Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work 554n, 563, 563n
labour standards, application 550, 551, 551n, 552, 556, 557, 563, 567, 568
as model for WTO 114–15
IMF (International Monetary Fund) 14, 32, 62, 81, 90–1, 90n, 117, 118, 119, 146–50, 174, 708, 716
Balance of Payments Manual 173
IMO (International Maritime Organization) 117
import(s)
exemption from safeguards 259–60
licensing 108
parallel 195–6
process and production methods 229–30, 233–4, 609–10
quotas 11–12
restrictions 131–4, 147, 151–4, 257–8, 389–90, 608–10;
labour-related 549–53;
prohibition 625
substitution 487
valuation 15
(p. 786) in dubio mitius, maxim 468
India 2, 113, 199–200, 245, 273n, 484n, 559, 624, 755
conduct of international disputes 148–9, 417–18, 565–6
involvement in (UN-led) sanctions 704n
tariff levels 136
use of dispute settlement system 490
industrial production, environmental impact 510–11
information, access to 681–2
inherent powers 304–15
injury, determination of 392n, 397, 407
intellectual property
defined 187
obligation to protect 584, 591–2
trade in 38, 104–7, 517 see also TRIPS
Inter-American Court of Human Rights 533n, 681–2
Inter-Parliamentary Union 89
Interagency Task Force on Statistics of International Trade in Services 174
interim agreements 250
Interlaken Declaration (2002) 705
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 204, 577–8, 591–2
International Finance Conference (1920) 12
international law
application in WTO cases 318–20, 532
environmental 682–3
fragmentation 332–3
of human rights 681–2
rules, primary vs secondary 439
special norms 443–4
of State responsibility 439
and treaty interpretation 326–7
International Office of Epizootics 92, 221, 601
international organizations
decision-making processes 679–80
good governance 678–83
interaction with civil society 673–4, 676–7, 692–3
International Peace Academy 743
International Plant Protection Convention 92, 221, 601
international standards 220–2
absence 221
conflict with national regulations 555, 555n
defined 221
disregard for 410–11
environmental 517–8, 518n, 523, 523n, 536–7
exceeding of 523n, 601–3, 616
health 600–2
labour 550, 551, 551n, 552, 556, 557, 563, 567, 568
International Trade Center 121
investment(s) 620–44
agreements 620–2, 629–40, 739–42 (see also BITs)
dispute settlement 638–40;
appeal structure, calls for 640;
caseload/frivolous claims 639;
costs 639
diversity of rules on 620–1
exceptions 634
future directions 641–3
GATS provisions 626–8
‘like circumstances’ criterion 630–1, 632–4
minimum standard of treatment 634–6, 640
multilateral agreement on (MAI) 628–9, 633
prohibited measures 625
protection 241–2, 620, 640, 641–3
TRIMS Agreement 624–6
and WTO law 620–1, 622–8, 629, 636, 641–3 see also FDI
investors, relationship with State 635–6, 637, 638–9
dispute resolution 739–42
Iran 82
UN sanctions 702–3
Iraq
WTO accession 716n
(p. 787) Coalition Provisional Authority 713–16
Committee of Financial Experts 717n
relevant legal framework for occupation 714–16
UN administrative involvement 713–14, 713n, 714n
UN sanctions 703
Irwin, Douglas 10
ISO (International Office for Standardization) 522
Israel 259–60
Italy
tariffs 11
taxation 763
ITLOS (International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea) 284n, 533n
ITO (International Trade Organization) 2, 14, 35–6, 45, 247
abandonment 33–4, 52, 748
draft charter 31, 33–4, 82, 506n, 533n, 540, 541, 622–3, 647, 655
negotiations 81–2
ITTC (Institute for Training and Technical Cooperation) 687
ITU (International Telecommunications Union) 99
Ivory Coast 707–9, 708n, 712n
Jackson, John H. 70, 72, 83, 123n, 247, 249, 388, 444
Japan 244–5, 290n, 499n, 632
competition law 654–5
conduct of international disputes 400–3, 418, 429–30, 655–7, 660–4
international trade negotiations 40, 113, 624
tariff levels 18, 135–6
trade information service 494
and TRIPS 187, 199
Japan Steel Export Association 660
Jara, Alejandro 166, 173, 176
judges
function 301–2
judicial economy, exercise of 364
judicial process, limits of 461–78
jura novit curia, principle of 322–3
jurisdiction(s) 299–315
choice of 656
compulsory 299–300, 303, 444
conflicts of 303–15
consensual 300–1, 309–10
defined 300n
dialogue between 456
exclusive 299–300, 349, 386
over jurisdiction 306–9, 312–13
over non-WTO violations 553
overlapping 255–6, 642
principles of 300–1
jus cogens norm 543
justice, as basis of economic theory 576–7
Kaldor-Hicks efficiency 580, 580n
Kennedy Round (1963–7) 16–17, 19, 36n, 37, 485
Kenya 199–200
Keynes, John Maynard 32
Kimberley Process 705–6
Klabbers, Jan 337n
Kompetenz-Kompetenz principle see jurisiction: over jurisdiction
Korea 135, 400–3
Kosovo 697, 710–12, 713n
UN Regulations on 711nn
Kuijper, Peter-Jan 58
Kuznets, Simon 510, 510n
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1997) 521n
labelling 556
labour
child 588, 738
conditions, in tariffschedules 548–9
developing countries and 565–7
forced 552, 552n, 585
and GATS 558–9
and GATT 1994 544–53
and GPA 559–60
and PPM regulations 545, 546–7, 555–6
prison 552, 585
and RTAs 544, 561–7
(p. 788) standards 541–2, 546, 568, 737–8;
as internal restrictions 564;
non-WTO, recognition of 555;
private/voluntary arrangements 557;
trade restrictions based on 549–53
and TBT Agreement 554–7
and TPRM 560–1
WTO policies/commitments 541–2, 544–5, 562–3, 568–9 (see also individual agreements)
Lacarte, Julio 83, 284n
Lamy, Pascal 86n, 324, 331, 568–9, 682–3, 686
Latin America, tariff levels 136
Lauder, Ronald 640
Law against Restraint of Competition (Germany 2005) 654
lawyers
before WTO hearings 288–9
on WTO panels 277, 304–5
least-developed countries (LDCs) 488
defined 485n
membership of WTO 482, 485n
dispute settlement 490, 497
preferential schemes 499–500;
in service sector, calls for 500n
specific WTO provisions 488
‘least-trade-restrictive’ test 142–6, 219, 250, 516–17, 591, 764
health issues and 605, 612–13
Lebanon 484n
legal determinations 385–6
legal experts, availability to developing countries 293–4
legitimacy, importance to global governance 674–5, 679–81
Lester, Simon 641n
Leutwiler Report (1987) 750
liberalization (of trade) 16, 19
benefits to home economy 580
ethical basis 595
evasion 33n
financial costs 579
human rights costs 573, 574, 578–83, 592–4
human rights links/benefits 572, 595
impact on workforce 542
process 27–8, 176–8
political impact 579
third-country costs 580 see also free trade
Liberia 702–3, 712n
licensing
Agreement 544
compulsory 193–5, 204
imports 108
restrictions 11–12
‘like circumstances’, investment criterion 630–1, 632–4
‘like’ products 414, 430–1, 545, 546–7, 548n, 759–60
competitive relationship, as criterion 760–1
criteria 547, 547n, 558, 762–4
cross-price elasticity 760
environmental implications 525–7
health issues and 607–8, 609–10, 612
human rights and 586–7
importance of context 612
manner of production and 546–8, 558
misapplied to investments 630–1
List, Frederick 9
litigation
costs 491, 496
public/private networks 495 see also dispute settlement
Lomé Convention (1975) 499
London Court of International Arbitration 263–4
Long, Olivier 464
Lowenfeld, Andreas 699
‘mad cow’ crisis 609
Malaysia 136, 662
Mali 575
Malta 139
Malthus, Thomas 508
Mandelson, Peter 521n
Marine Mammal Protection Act (US 1985) 515
marine wildlife, protection 515
market access 544, 627
conditioned 735–7;
objections to 737–8
negotiations 26–7
(p. 789) Marrakesh Agreement see WTO: Agreement
Marrakesh Intergovernmental Conference (1994) 37–8, 91, 126, 271
Declaration on Trade and the Environment 513, 515–16, 528–9
Marshall Plan 100, 246–7
Mattoo, Aaditya 176, 177
Mauritius 561
Mautner, Menachem 753n
Mavroidis, Petros 69, 130
media, representations of WTO disputes 439–40
mediation 466–7
requests for 274, 350n, 493
medicines, access to 192–5 see also pharmaceuticals
Members (of WTO)
conflicts of rights 217
consistency with WTO law, requirement of 224–5, 386, 442–3, 444–6, 457, 544, 562–3, 605
degree of autonomy 210–35, 381, 394–5, 473–7, 582–3;
over health systems 598, 600, 601–2, 616
diplomatic representatives 466
discretion 392, 394–5, 435
disparity of environmental/trade views 534–5
economic status 482
interpretive authority 338, 348
investment commitments 627–8
involvement in RTAs 238–9
obligations 137–8, 205, 250, 320, 329–30, 339, 360, 403–9, 409n, 411–12, 443–4, 445–6, 541–2, 556, 584, 600–1;
exemptions from 696
panels’ deference to 417–20
powers/authority, balance with WTO’s 177–8, 382, 410, 435, 752, 753–4
preference for low NGO participation 684–5
procedural requirements 351–3
qualifications 90–1
supervisory role 350–3
technical regulations 554, 554n
third-party participation 362–3, 366, 366n, 369 see also national laws
MERCOSUR (Southern Common Market) 158, 238, 257–60, 264
and GATT/WTO 64–5, 614–16
mergers, control of 654–5
Mexico 199, 242, 244–5, 259–60, 273n, 515n, 637
conduct of international disputes 64, 260–3, 307–13, 553n, 658–9
MFN (most-favoured-nation) treatment 10, 34, 63–4, 161, 169, 187, 196, 213, 243, 247, 254, 485–6, 499, 546, 590, 616, 627, 647, 751, 757
in BITs 630–4, 644
defined 486n, 632
exemptions 201–2, 558
military occupation, law of 713, 716, 716n
Mill, John Stuart 580n
minimum standard of treatment, principle of 634–6, 640
defined 635, 636
enforcement/reparations 636, 636n, 642–3
Ministerial Conference(s) (of WTO) 39–40, 43, 57, 85–6, 92–3, 112, 113, 250, 348, 386n
functions/powers 29, 96–8, 98n
treaty interpretation 339, 340
Cancun (2003) 26, 40–1, 90, 106, 166, 672–3, 676, 680–1, 693
Doha (2001) 40, 96–9, 106, 113, 120, 166, 193, 535
Geneva (1998) 40
Hong Kong (2005) 26, 39, 90, 169, 501, 672
Seattle (1999) 24, 25, 40, 66, 86–7, 113, 245, 672
Singapore (1996) 39–40, 173, 665
Mongolia 239
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987) 514, 514n, 520, 522, 535
(p. 790) Moore, Michael 86n, 89, 116, 493n
morality, protection of 531, 549, 550–1, 585
moratorium, legality of 606
multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) 82, 523, 531
relationship with WTO agreements 532, 535
multinational corporations 2, 724–45
codes of conduct 557, 733–4
criticisms 727–8, 727n, 734–5
employee relations 729
fiduciary duties 726–7
global impact 730–1
lack of regulation 724–5, 731, 733–5
OECD Guidelines 741–2
(proposed) remedies for wrongdoing 739–45
sanctions against 742–5
self-regulation 557, 731, 733–4
sphere of influence 729–30
municipal law 420–1, 434
and compliance 454–7, 458
relationship with WTO law 456, 458
Mutifibre Arrangement (1974) see Agreement on Textiles and Clothing
mutual recognition, requirement of 223–4, 234–5
Myanmar 484n, 550
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) 64, 158, 238, 241, 242
environmental provisions 523, 535
investment provisions 620, 621, 629, 630–1, 632–3, 634–5, 637, 638–9, 643, 739
labour provisions 562, 564
rules of origin 244, 260n
side agreements 241–2
violations 553, 564
NAMA (non-agricultural market access) 26–7, 136–8, 155
national emergency, states of 202n
‘national exhaustion’ 195–6
national laws/legislatures 210–35
competition law 649–52
consistency, requirement of 224–5, 386, 422n, 442–3, 444–6
corporate regulation 724, 731–3;
diversity 745
discretion 394–5, 435
duty to explain 405–9, 427–8
emergency measures 151–4
environmental 512–13, 522–4 (see also environmental measures)
extraterritorial authority 228–31, 233–4
harmonization 220–2, 234–5
impact of WTO rulings 123, 220, 389–90
investigations initiated by 394–5
legal processes, influence on review system 384, 388–90, 409–10
mutual recognition 222–3, 234–5
panels’ deference to 390–1, 394–6, 397, 398–9, 403, 416–20
precautionary action 225–6
procedural obligations 403–4, 411–12
relationship with WTO law 385–6, 389–90
representations on own legal system 417–20
standard of review applicable to 416–21
substantive obligations 404–9
as trier of first impression (in cases of fact) 390–1, 394–6, 399, 409–10
national treatment principle 138–42, 154, 161, 187, 196, 211–4, 255, 627, 647, 666, 753, 758–9
in BITs 630–4, 644
defined 632
and health measures 606–8
and human rights 586n
and labour standards 558–60
panel/Appellate interpretations 760–72
natural persons, movement of 162–3n
natural resources
defined 334, 475–6, 516, 516n
as focus of economic theory 575–6
sovereignty over 623
necessity test 142–6, 154–5, 215–18, 227–8, 232, 395, 516–17, 589n, 598–9
context-specificity 611–12
(p. 791) and health issues 605, 607–8, 611–15, 616
for human rights-related measures 589
for labour-related measures 550–1, 556
sanctions and 704–5
Netherlands 531
New Zealand 199, 273n, 658
NGOs (non-governmental organizations)
activities in trade arena 677–8, 685n, 712n
criticisms 676, 690
diversity 677
environmental 507, 533, 533n, 677–8
labour-related 557
legitimacy 676
relations with WTO 66–7, 92–3, 99n, 124, 672–3, 675–7, 680–1, 683–6, 691;
guidelines on 684–5;
objections to 676;
participation in decisionmaking process 686
submissions to panels/Appellate Body 364, 369, 473, 533, 689, 691
transnational networks 674, 675–6
Nicaragua 199, 574, 632, 701
Nicolaides, Kalypso 71, 158–60, 171
non-discrimination, principle of 211–14, 243, 666, 708n
in BITs 630–4
and human rights 586–8, 712
and labour standards 546–8, 558, 559–60
non-reciprocity, principle of 486
non-tariff barriers (NTBs) 17, 28, 34, 36–7, 506
health measures as 599
non ultra petita, principle of 300–1
Nordstrom, Hakan 119n, 120n, 491n
normative economics, theory based on 575–6
Norway 273n, 499n
Notice of Appeal, filing of 365, 368, 369
‘objective assessment’ criterion 382–3, 433–4
observer status, rules of 92–3
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) 22–3, 81, 100, 100n, 121, 174, 665, 733–4
Declaration on International and Multinational Enterprises (1976) 632
failed investment initiative 628–9, 633
Guidelines for Multinational Corporations (2000) 741–2
tariff levels 136
OEEC (Organization for European Economic Co-operation) 100, 100n
oil trade 179
open hearings 295–6, 363
Ostry, Sylvia 23
OTC (Organization for Trade Cooperation) 36
Ottawa agreements 13
Ouagadougou Agreement (2007) 708
OWINFS (Our World Is Not for Sale, NGO) 677
Oxfam International 678, 730
Pakistan 484n
Palmeter, David 69, 386, 446
Panagariya, Arvind 243
Panama 350n
Panama Declaration (1995) 515n
panels/panellists (WTO)
Appellate Body’s review of findings 421–33
applicable law 315–20
application of law to factual findings 429–33
caseload 277, 295–6
composition 276, 355, 533
duty to explain 427–8
establishment 353–5
evidentiary issues 359–61, 412–13
factual determinations 388–421, 423–8
fees 277n
function 305, 432
inherent powers 306–15
institutional role 432
judicial economy 364
jurisdiction 299–300, 301, 302, 306–15
legal determinations 385–8, 422–3
legal status 277–8
margin of discretion 361, 424
methodology see separate main heading
for multiple challenges 356
and national treatment 760–66
(p. 792) nationality 277, 279–80, 287
open hearings 363
preliminary rulings 357–8
private counsel, representation before 364
proceedings 353–64
proposed reforms 279
qualifications 277
relationship with national authorities 394–6, 397, 398–9
relationship with other WTO bodies 381n
reports: adoption 121–2, 123, 272–3n, 306, 350–1;
binding status 448–9;
drafting 356–7;
implementation 371–5, 448–9, 496;
interim 356;
length 282, 282n
restrictions 396–7
roster approach (proposed) 279–80, 358n
selection 275, 275n, 276–7, 276n, 279–80, 355
standards of review 361–2, 381, 382–421;
deference to national authorities 389–90, 394–6, 397, 398–9, 403, 409–10, 416–20;
influence of specific obligations 403–9
submissions to 356, 363
third parties, rights of 362–3
time frames 278–9, 278n, 357, 357n, 358, 392–3, 492
transparency 363–4
and treaty interpretation 322–3, 341–2, 468
and TRIMS claims 625–6
working procedures 356
Panitchpakdi, Supachai 86n, 93, 116, 350
Paraguay 199
parallelism 259, 262
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (1883) 106–7
Parliamentary Conference on the WTO (2003) 89–90
parliamentary organs (of international organizations) 89
participation 683–90
in dispute settlement procedure 688–90
importance in global system 679–81
in WTO negotiations 687–8
Patent and Industrial Design Law (Iraq) 715–16
patents, protection 190–1, 192, 591n, 592
pharmaceutical 192–3, 598
Pauwelyn, Joost 69, 152–3, 318–9, 452–3
PCA (Permanent Court of Arbitration) 315
Pelly Amendment (US 1978) 520, 520n
periodicals, import 179
perishable goods, disputes relating to 278n
Peru 222, 411n
agreements with US 563, 632
Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich 529, 753n
pharmaceutical products 97
patents 192–3, 598
Philippines 274, 350n, 493
Plato 8
Poland 499n
politics
distinguished from law 325–6
influence on courts 122
role in WTO dispute settlement 440
pollution 510–1
Pomfret, Richard 243
Post, Harry 704
post-conflict situations
economic reconstruction 707–10, 719–20
extent of UN involvement 706–7
trade law and 697–8
transitional administration 710–13, 719–20
powers, attributed vs implied 109–1
PPM (process and production) methods 229–30, 233–4
environmental measures and 525–7, 536
labour standards and 545, 546–7, 555–6, 558, 568
Pre-Shipment Inspection Agreement 107–8
precautionary principle 225–6, 527, 527n, 604
preferential rules (for developing countries) 483–4, 498–502, 736–7
(p. 793) calls for regulation 499–500
non-enforceability 483–4, 498–9, 502
preferential trade agreements (PTAs) 183
prison labour 552
private counsel see counsel
proof, burden of see burden of proof
proportionality principle 142–3, 441, 452
protectionism 11, 13, 487, 487n, 554n, 737–8
accusations of 526
environmental 521, 526
negative impact 574, 575
and RTAs 242
States’ right to 574–5
Pulkowski, Dirk 441
Punta del Este Ministerial Declaration (1986) 91, 624
‘Quad’ group (at Uruguay Round) 40, 113–14
‘race to the bottom’ 511, 511n
Rappard, William 12
Reagan, Ronald 22
reasonableness, criterion of 380, 387n, 398–9, 402
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (US, 1947) 14–15
reciprocity, requirement of 419 see also non-reciprocity
recycling 525
Regan, Donald 143
regional trade agreements (RTAs) 63–6, 158–9, 238–64, 755–6
benefits 241–2, 246, 264, 755
compatibility with global system 246–53, 264, 562–3
conflicts with WTO 255–64
defined 239–40, 248
disadvantages 243–6, 264
discrimination 243, 616
dispute settlement 260–4
environmental provisions 535n
impact on global system 244
inequality of bargaining power 245–6
internal restrictions 562–3, 564
labour provisions/implications 544, 561–7
negotiating costs 244–6
preferential tariffs 501
as preparation for global negotiations 242
procedural requirements 251–3
proliferation 238–9, 252–3, 255, 264, 487, 561
requirement to cover all trade sectors 248–51, 255
rules of origin 243–4, 755
substantive requirements 248–51
regionalism
benefits 241–2
costs 243–6
remand, power of 370–1
remedies see trade remedies
restitution, as remedy 451
retaliation, right of 496–7
Ricardo, David 8–9, 580
Rio Conference/Declaration on Environment and Development (1992) 509, 514, 527n, 593–4
risk assessment 411–12, 602–4
defined 603
Roessler, Frieder 501
Rome, Treaty of 664
Rothnie, Warwick 195
Roy, Martin 176
Ruggie, John 14n
Ruggiero, Renato 86n
Russia 499n, 629
Rwanda 195
Sacerdoti, Giorgio 339n, 351
SACU (South African Customs Union) 244
safeguards 104, 109, 468–9, 659
Committee on 109
emergency, national 151–4
exclusions 259–60
in services sector 163–5
standard of review 389, 395–6
(p. 794) Safeguards Agreement 107, 151–4, 155, 258–60, 262–3, 384, 395–7, 404, 468–9, 471, 474, 476, 648
labour provisions 557, 557n
sanctions
corporate 742–5
human rights-based 586–8
impact on civilian population 703
impact on third States 703–4
impact on trading system 452–3
‘smart’ 742–5
UN-imposed 697–8, 701–6, 744
unilateral 20, 514, 700–1, 704
Saudi Arabia, accession to WTO 86n
Sauvé, Pierre 162
Schott, Jeffrey 241
Schwartz, Warren F. 446–7
scientific evidence
as basis for environmental measures 518, 527–8
as basis for SPS measures 218–20
for health measures 602–4
SCM (Subsidies and Countervailing Measures) Agreement (1994) 101, 108–9, 110–1, 189, 191, 291, 292n, 349, 352, 359, 449, 491, 515n, 532, 658
Committee 110–1
labour provisions 557
and standard of review 395–7, 400, 403, 431–2
Secretariat (of WTO) 27, 43, 58, 81, 89, 100, 108, 118–21, 126–7, 164, 165, 173–4, 238–9, 252, 529
criticisms 466n
headquarters 119, 540
legal divisions 293
role in dispute settlement 275, 276n, 293–4, 466–7, 492
security exceptions 696, 699–701, 704–6, 714–5, 718
Sen, Amartya 573
‘September 11’ attacks 53
sequencing 294–5, 374
services, trade in 19, 38, 104, 500n, 517
‘domestic regulation’ 163, 166–7
investment and 626–8
lack of shared ‘scripts’ 175–8
need for increased research/investment 181–2, 183–4
overlap with products 178–80
range of sectors 161
regulation 163–7
and RTAs 254–5
shortage of information on 171–5, 181–4;
attempts to rectify 174–5
statistics 173–4
Uruguay discussions 159–62, 167, 170, 172–3, 177 see also GATS
Shaffer, Gregory 491n, 494, 497n
shareholders, corporate
active involvement 734–5
primacy, doctrine of 726–7;
criticisms 727–8
Sherman Antitrust Act (US 1890) 650–1, 658, 662
Sierra Leone 702–3, 709–10, 709n
Simma, Bruno 441
Singapore Declaration 541
‘Singapore issue’ 197–8
small arms trade 698, 717–19
measures for control 717–18
SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) 560
Smith, Adam 8, 32
social security benefits 558–9, 580–1
South Africa 40n, 244
Southern Rhodesia, sanctions against 703
sovereignty, national
over natural resources 623
relationship with international obligations 34, 52–3, 234–5, 381, 471–3, 477, 522
right to expropriation 636–7
Soviet Union, collapse of 21–2, 648
‘Spaghetti Bowl’ problem 244
Spain 632
Spak, Gregory 386
special and differential treatment (S&DT) 484–8, 502
benefits 503
criticisms 486–7, 502–3
demands for 484–6
(p. 795) SPS (Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures) Agreement (1994) 92, 97–8, 108–9, 111, 146, 154, 210–34, 331, 334–5, 384, 472, 491, 555, 585, 589, 591
application 231–4
Committee 92, 111, 465
compared with other Agreements 211, 231–2, 233–4
definition of SPS measures 230–1, 233–4, 599
dispute settlement 275, 303–4
environmental implications 515n, 517–18, 523, 523n, 527, 527n, 533n
health provisions/implications 598–606, 615–16
on necessity test 218, 232
preference for international standards 600–2
on scientific basis 219–20
trade remedy measures 411–14, 415, 416, 434
Sri Lanka 484n
Standards Code 515n
standards of living 541
environmental impact 509
standard(s) of review 291, 361–2, 379–435
Appellate Body’s contribution 383n, 395–6, 399, 401–2, 406–7, 421–33
application to domestic law 416–21
‘check list’ approach 403–4
consistency 395–6
defined 379–80
differing approaches to 428, 432, 433, 434–5
duty to explain 405–9
evolving nature 435
factual questions 388–421
flexibility of concept 380–1
function 381
GATT 1994 and 414–6, 434
influence of national processes 384, 388–90
influence of particular obligation 403–9
lack of standardised approach 433
legal questions 385–8
mixed factual/legal questions 391–2
‘objective assessment’ criterion 382–3, 433–4
procedural requirements 411–12
special cases 382–3n, 386n, 387–8, 391, 394–6, 397n
and trade remedy agreements 390–414, 434 see also de novo review; national laws; panels
States
consent to jurisdiction 309–10
contingency measures 146–54, 202n
dissociation from others’ policies 521
environmental powers/policies 512, 525
environmental/trade responsibilities 537–8
expropriation rights 636–7
healthcare rights/responsibilities 598, 607–8
human rights obligations 574, 577
impact of trade policies 574
investment obligations 630–1
investment rules (domestic) 620, 739
regulatory powers 583–92
relations with NGOs 676–7
relationship with dispute settlement system 471–2, 477
responsibility, international law of 439, 440–2, 754
social welfare programmes 580–1
standing, propsed reforms 740–2
Steger, Debra 83, 482
Stockholm Conference/Declaration on the Human Environment (1972) 514
Stoler, Andrew 369–70
Stolper-Samuelson theorem 579n
subsidies 163, 165–6, 472
agricultural 26–7, 513, 575–6
fisheries 688
illegal 449–50, 532
sugar, export 260–1
Summers, Lawrence 511n
Sunset Policy Bulletin (US) 424–5
(p. 796) sustainable development, concept of 515–16, 678, 728
Sutherland Report (2004) 80, 114, 462n, 748, 750
Sweden 624
Switzerland 499n
agreement with WTO Secretariat 119
tariff formula 26, 137
Sykes, Alan O. 446–7
Syria 484n
System of National Accounts 1993 173
Taiwan 335
tariffs
‘bindings’ 33, 33n, 42, 582
‘concession’ 135
labour-related 548–9
negotiation 17, 26
origins 7–8
preferential 180, 183, 485–6, 501, 736–7 (see also MFN)
rates: bound vs applied 136;
national variations 135–6
reduction 16, 17–18, 24, 36, 134–8, 487, 506
regulation 14–16, 562–3
special rates 244
Swiss formula 26, 137, 137n
tiers 26
taxation 450–1
GATT provisions 757–8
illegal 451
panel/Appellate Body reports 760–61, 762, 763, 764
revenues from 579
TBT (Technical Barriers to Trade) Agreement (1979) 83, 97–8, 108–9, 110, 146, 154, 210–34, 331, 585, 589, 591
application 231–4, 410n
compared with other Agreements 210, 232–4, 412
competition provisions 648, 649
environmental provisions 518n, 523, 523n
labour provisions/implications 544, 545, 546, 554–7, 568
trade remedy measures 409–11, 412, 413–14, 416, 434
technical regulation(s) 554, 554n, 556
defined 230
technology transfer 197, 625
telecommunications 658–9
television, import rules 244
Telmex 658–9
territoriality principle 229–31, 233–4
textiles
trade liberalization 20–1
Thailand 274, 290n, 350n, 462n, 493, 610, 612–3
Thatcher, Margaret 22
third parties, rights of 362–3
additional 363
Thucydides 7
timber products, export 263–4
Tokyo Round (1973–9) 16–9, 21, 35, 36n, 47, 107, 113, 270, 486
Codes 38, 83, 108, 584
focus on NTBs 17, 28, 36–7
side agreements 42, 48, 49
tolls 7
Torquay Round (1951) 16, 36n
Trachtman, Joel P. 69, 71–2
trade
arguments for 8–9
avoidance of restrictions, as principle 142–6
defined 6
modes of 160–1
origins 6–7
relationship with environment see environment; environmental measures
relationship with human rights see human rights
restrictions: labour-related 549–53, 564–7;
States’ right to impose 574–5, 576n, 582, 584–5
Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC) 81, 91
(p. 797) Trade-Related Aspects of Environmental Protection, proposed agreement on 536
trade remedies 442, 452–4, 544, 557
applicability 582–3
and competition policy 659–64
conditional access 739–40
repayment as 451–2
transboundary harm (environmental) 520–1, 532
transparency 161, 295–6, 534–5, 666, 683–90
civil society’s demands for 672, 692
importance to global governance 672, 679–81, 687
mechanisms 252, 264, 565
and panel/Appellate Body hearings 363–4, 369–70, 691–2
and RTAs 565
in UN operations 712n, 716–17
in WTO procedures 687–8
treaties
ambiguity 467–71, 477
treaty interpretation 51, 299, 321–41
Appellate Body’s contribution 291–2, 324–5, 326–30, 333–4
and applicable law 315–17
authoritative: requests for 338–9, 338n;
vs judicial 338–41
consistency 324–5, 330–6
contextualism 326–30
DSU and 322–6, 342
and effectiveness principle 328–30
general principles 316–17, 321–2
principle of harmonious interpretation 330–6, 544
as holistic process 321–2
and international law 326–7
means of 326–30
special (WTO-specific) principles 336–8
TREMS (Trade-Related Environment Measures) 512, 519, 521
TRIMS (Trade-Related Investment Measures) Agreement (1994) 87, 99, 108, 110, 624–6
competition provisions 648–9
panels’ reluctance to engage with 625–6
TRIPS (Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights) agreement (1994) 24–5, 42, 57–8, 62–3, 99, 187–205, 513, 515n, 536, 547n, 584, 591n, 751, 753
amendments 194–5
competition provisions 648
Council 104–7, 419;
specific powers 105–6
criticisms 187–9
dispute settlement 189–92, 196
enforcement 455–6
exceptions 193
free trade areas and 201–3
and health issues 97, 192–5, 598
human rights and 203–4, 591–2, 595
interpretation 337n, 338n
objectives 187, 188
outstanding issues 195–200, 535n
scope 187
‘TRIPS-plus’ 201–3
Tuna/Dolphin cases 515, 521n, 524–5, 526
Turkey
appearances before GATT/WTO 64, 256–7
customs union 256–7
TWN (Third World Network) 677
UNCLOS (UN Convention on the Law of the Sea) 315
Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes see DSU
United Kingdom
corporate law 732
domestic case law 651–2
role in world trade 9–10
tariff policies 13
United Nations (UN) 2, 89, 696–720
Administrative Committee on Cooperation (ACC) 62
Agenda for Peace 704n
arms trade regulation 717–19
(p. 798) Central Product Classification 174
changes in practice 697–8
Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) 685
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 204, 577
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 62, 121, 174, 485–6, 507, 507n, 565, 629n, 685, 728, 733, 740
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 93, 685, 744–5
economic reconstruction operations 708–9
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 117
Environment Programme (UNEP) 686, 688
General Assembly 623, 705, 709
Global Compact 730
High Commissioner for Human Rights 203, 594
Human Rights Committee 711n
Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) 62
International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons 717
Mission in Ivory Coast (MINUCI) 707
Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) 710–11, 713n
objectives 572–3
Office of Legal Affairs (OLA) 711–12
Operation in Ivory Coast (UNOCI) 707–8
Peacebuilding Commission 698, 706, 709–10
peacekeeping operations 706–10
Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade of Small Arms and Light Weapons 717–18
Protocol Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms 717–19
Regulations on Kosovo 711nn
relationship with international trade law 696–8, 701–17
relationship with WTO 62–3
Resolution 55/56 (2000) 705–6
Resolution on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources (1962) 623
sanctions 697–8, 701–6, 744
Security Council 523, 697, 701, 702, 709, 743, 744;
specialized agencies 62, 72, 73–4, 73n, 114, 119
Statistics Division 174
Sub-Commission on Human Rights 203, 581, 590
transitional administrations 710–17
United States 499n
Antitrust Laws 650–2, 658, 660–4
competition law 650–2, 654–5, 658
conduct of international disputes 90, 101, 190–1, 260–4, 272n, 295–6, 450–1, 462n, 531n, 606, 640, 653, 655–8, 660–4, 691–2;
frequency of appearances 287
corporate law 732–3, 737, 738
criticisms of WTO/dispute settlement process 281–2
demography 39
Department of Commerce 424–5, 662–3
domestic case law 650–2
environmental legislation 515, 520n
international trade negotiations 16–17, 35, 40, 83–4, 113, 246–7, 477, 515n, 624, 633
labour questions 561
Model BIT (bilateral investment treaty) 621–2, 632, 636
relationship with WTO 83–4, 89, 111, 121–2, 124, 417, 474
safeguard measures 262–3
tariff rates/policy 11, 18, 135–6, 244
tax regime 450–1
trade agreements 202–3, 244–5, 259–60, 663–4, 740 (see also NAFTA)
trade information service 494
trade legislation 13, 14–5, 34, 203, 499, 522
trade sanctions 20, 514, 515, 521n, 524–5, 526, 533
(p. 799) treaty participation/provisions 334n, 335n, 563, 629, 632, 635, 637;
nineteenth-century 631–2
and TRIPS 187, 199, 202–3
Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) 576–7, 591–2, 730
Uruguay 46–7
Uruguay Round (1986–96) 1, 16–7, 18–23, 36n, 37–41, 44, 117, 131, 152, 201, 477, 559, 641, 680, 750
achievements 20–1, 23
aftermath 162–3, 167, 172, 184, 254
background 18–20
Brussels Ministerial Meeting (1990) 25
creation of WTO 38–9, 41–3, 81, 91, 107
dispute settlement provisions 49–50, 271, 280, 375, 387n, 423, 482
economic/policy context 21–3
environmental measures 515–16
and intellectual property 188, 591
role of developing countries 24–5, 487–8, 692
and RTAs 242, 248, 251
and services 159–62, 167, 170, 172–3, 177, 184, 626–7
‘single package’ approach 38, 749
and TRIMS Agreement 625, 626
US-Central American Free Trade Agreement 740
US-Japan Semiconductor Agreement (1986) 663–4
Van den Bossche, Peter 93n
Venezuela 272n
Vernon, Raymond, Prof. 21
Vienna Convention of the Law of Treaties (1969) 52, 68, 291–2, 438–9
and standards of review 385–6, 387–8, 433
and treaty interpretation 316–17, 323–4, 326–7, 331–7
Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963) 456
Viner, Jacob 243
voluntary export restraints (VERs) 487, 659–61
relationship with antitrust law 660–1
waivers 59, 86, 86n, 97, 501n, 706
and intellectual property 104, 105–6, 194–5, 202n
and MFN treatment 485–6
Warwick Commission/Report (2007) 750, 752
Watal, Jayashree 196
Weekes, John 292n
Weeramantry, Judge 333n
‘weighing and balancing’, need for 142–6
Whalley, John 488n
WHO (World Health Organization) 88, 117, 555, 593, 599
WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) 62–3, 189, 200–1, 685
membership 200
Working Group on the Interaction between Trade and Competition Policy 197–8, 661, 665
Working Group on Trade and Investment 641
Working Party on Domestic Regulation (WPDR) 167
Working Party on GATS Rules (WPGR) 163–7
Working Party on Professional Services (WPPS) 167
World Bank 14, 32, 58, 62, 81, 90–1, 90n, 118–9, 150, 708, 716, 734
World Business Council for Sustainable Development 728
World Customs Organization 445
World Economic Conference (1927) 12
World Heritage Convention (1972) 525
world trading system
defined 6, 27
history 31–53
WTO (World Trade Organization)
accessions 42–3, 86, 86n, 97, 485n, 708n, 709n
achievements 51–3
(p. 800) Agreement 24, 41–3, 56–7, 58, 84–93, 94, 95, 118–19, 340–1, 386n, 438, 454–6, 515n, 572n, 576, 684;
Annexes 42–3, 153
appointment of officials 89
balance of powers 94
capacity-building 686–7
civil participation in 683–90
Committees 465 (see also individual names/Agreements)
compared with other international organizations 73–5, 80–1, 116–17, 150
compatibility of RTAs with 247–53
and competition law/policy:
appropriateness as forum 655;
provisions in agreements 648–9
conflicting norms 155, 210
conflicts with RTAs 255–64
constitutionalism 70–4, 752–4
Consultative Board 121n, 324n, 341, 490
contribution to international law 67–9, 289
cooperation with other international organizations 147–8, 150, 155
core values 756–70
covered agreements 97–8, 107–9, 329n;
conflicts between 549, 585, 615, 642, 766;
harmonious interpretation 330–6, 544;
lacunae 241, 441–2 (see also individual names)
creation 23, 31, 37–8, 50, 55, 692, 748
criticisms 40–1, 74–5, 594, 672, 730, 749
decision-making procedures 44, 51, 59–60, 80–1, 88n, 94–5, 96, 113, 462n;
NGO participation 686
developing-country provisions 96–7, 137–8, 253–4, 293–4, 359, 487–8, 496
Director-General see separate main heading
dispute settlement see separate main heading
and the environment 529–37;
adjudicative approach 530–4;
measures 515–18;
negotiated solutions 534–7;
(perceived) responsibilities 529–30;
(potential) conflicts 512
executive organs see non-plenary organs below
finances 99–100, 120
functions 58–60
General Council see separate main heading
increasing legality 438–9, 464–5, 482, 489
institutional structure 43–4, 84–93, 87n, 95, 111–12, 274–94, 684–6
internal tensions 40–1, 50–1, 124–6, 155
as international organization 81–4
investment rules 620–1, 622–8, 629, 636, 641–3
jurisdiction 299–315, 410
languages 367, 395n
law 751;
(alleged) corporate bias 730;
breaches 440–2;
distinguished from other treaty law 72–3, 317–19;
legality of UN actions under 698, 718;
limited enforceability 471–2, 498–9;
relationship with municipal law 456, 458;
self-executing 455;
Legal Affairs Division 275n, 293
as legal institution 56–61
legal personality 60–1
legislative authority 220–2
limitations 126–7;
of judicial process see separate main heading
Ministerial Conferences see separate main heading
negotiation procedures 687–8
non-plenary organs, absence of 88–9, 90–1, 112–15, 117–18
objectives 18, 24, 55, 57, 84–5, 330, 447, 453–4, 647;
duality of 462–4
observers 92
organization 24–5, 27, 57–8, 80–1
(p. 801) overlapping powers of organs 111–12
parliamentary organ, absence of 89
powers of amendment 59, 105
Public Symposium 686
relations with NGOs 66–7
relationship with other international organizations 61–6, 147–8, 150, 155, 698, 715–16, 718–9
role in international system 1, 51–2, 55–75
Rules Division 293
scope 529
Secretariat see separate main heading
and services trade 174–6, 184
Single Undertaking 544, 749
specialized Councils 43, 57–8, 86–7, 95, 99
standard of review see separate main heading
Trade in Services Division 293
Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC) 81, 91, 94, 168–9
Trade Policy Review Mechanism/Board (TPRM/TPRB) 42, 43–4, 57, 86, 100, 175, 467n, 560–1
trade-related technical assistance 121
transparency 683–90
treaty structure 41–3, 55–7, 73–4
voting system/regulations 42–4, 59, 112, 115n, 290n, 306, 386n, 474 (see also consensus)
WWF (World Wildlife Fund) 67, 677–8, 688
Wyndham-White, Sir Eric 17, 46
Yerxa, Rufus 274
Yugoslavia 624
Zambia 500n
zeroing 469–71, 474
Zimbabwe 484n see also Southern Rhodesia