- Foreign Direct Investment
This chapter evaluates whether the existing legal framework adequately protect cultural heritage vis-à-vis the economic interests of foreign investors. It aims to address this question by examining recent arbitrations and proposing three principal legal tools to foster a better balance between economic and cultural interests in international investment law and arbitration. This recent jurisprudence highlights that arbitral tribunals are increasingly providing consideration to cultural concerns. Yet, the interplay between the protection of cultural heritage and the promotion of foreign direct investment in international investment law and arbitration continues to pose two main problems: one ontological, concerning the essence of international investment law and international law more generally; and one epistemological, concerning the mandate of arbitral tribunals. The chapter then considers three principal avenues that can facilitate a better balance between the public and private interests in international investment law: a ‘treaty-driven approach’; a ‘judicially driven approach’; and counterclaims.
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