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The Handbook of the Law of Visiting Forces, 2nd Edition edited by Fleck, Dieter (12th April 2018)

Index

Edited By: Dieter Fleck

From: The Handbook of the Law of Visiting Forces (2nd Edition)

Edited By: Dieter Fleck

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From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2015. All Rights Reserved. Subscriber: null; date: 14 November 2019

(p. 741) Index

A&T Agreements
Global SOFA Template (GST) 717–23
meaning 713
nature of agreements 713–15
purpose 715–17
Abkhazia 686, 696, 697, 703, 708, 709, 710
Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) 291, 634
administrative jurisdiction 246–59
administrative law 100
aerial operations 429–30
Afghanistan
Afghanistan-NATO SOFA 677–83
Afghanistan-US BSA 677–83
air strikes 673–4
Bonn Agreement 650–2
claims 322–36
contractors 658–9
criminal jurisdiction 656
customs 663–4
detention operations 665–73
driving licences 655
duties 655–6
establishing the government 651–2
fees 655–6
generally 650
International Security Assistance Force 652–76
logistics 658–65
military technical agreement 653–5
mission change 656–8
negotiations for new SOFAs 676–7
new legal framework 677–83
night operations 675
Operation Enduring Freedom 655–6
private security contractors 659–62
tolls 655–6
uniforms 655
US invasion 650–1
African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) 391, 392, 526
African Standby Force (ASF) 390, 392, 526, 529, 530
African Union (AU)
financing operations 390–4
international military headquarters 526–31
legal basis for collective military cooperation 527–8
legal status of forces 530–1
legal status of military headquarters 528–9
Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) 429, 430, 581
Albania 8, 10, 134, 135, 136, 319, 434
Aleutian Islands 423
Algeria 424
Allied Command Europe (ACE) Rapid Reaction Corps 34, 462, 471
Allied Command Operations (ACO) 284, 342, 385, 485, 581
Allied Command Transformations 264
Alma-Ata 540
Angola 456, 527
appeals
jurisdiction 238
applicability during crisis and war 436
Argentina 550
Armenia 539, 542, 708, 709
arms
ammunition 200
civilians 199
concealed weapons 200–1
force security 201
generally 198
import control 203–4
meaning 199–200
NATO SOFA 198–204
personal weapons 201
scope of right to carry arms 198–9
self-defence 202–3
storage 200
transport 200
UN Model SOFA 198–204
use of force 201–2
arrest
enforcement of military law 269–71
jurisdiction 231–44
assets
NATO international military headquarters 494–5
Australia 270, 290, 603, 620, 714, 718, 719, 730
Austria 19, 134, 164, 254
Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF) 673
Azerbaijan 539, 541, 542, 690, 693
Azores 422
Balanzino Letter 309
Baltic Battalion (BALTBATT) 36
Baltic Naval Squadron (BALTRON) 36
bank accounts
NATO international military headquarters 495–7
Belarus 542, 584, 693, 708, 709
Belgium 15, 113, 162, 210, 239, 281, 358, 470, 479, 491, 514, 579
Berlin crisis 20
Bilateral Security Agreements (BSAs) 138, 140, 678, 679–80
Black Sea fleet 703, 709
Bosnia-Herzegovina
claims 164, 308–17
Brazil 305
British Overseas Territories 425
Burundi 527
cafeterias
NATO international military headquarters 520–1
Cambodia 121, 617
Cameroon 137
Canada 239, 358, 419–20, 579
Canary Islands 422
canteens
NATO international military headquarters 520–1
Capstone Doctrine 437
Caribbean 9
Central African Republic 527, 532, 533
Central America 9
Chad 526
Check List for Pre-Deployment Negotiations 736–9
children
dependents 145
China 704
Civil-Military Cooperation 571
civilian components
NATO SOFA 123–6
UN Model SOFA 120–2
civilian staff 88
civilians
arms 199
claims
Afghanistan 322–36
Bosnia-Herzegovina 308–17
Eastern Europe 292–300
European Union 301–2
ex gratia claims 284
Former Yugoslavia 303–4
generally 278–9
Germany 285–90
Haiti 305–7
historical background 279–80
Hungary 292–8
(p. 742) intergovernmental claims 283
Kosovo 317–20
NATO SOFA 282–92
new NATO member states 298–300
official duty third-party claims 283–4
operational deployment 735
Pakistan 321–2
post-World War II 281–2
types of claim 282
UN operations 302–8
UN SOFA 302–3
World War I 280
World War II 280–1
Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) 139, 618
Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) 12, 539, 541–2, 708
international military headquarters 541
Combined Forces Command (Korea) 623, 625–7
command and control 43–8
Common Foreign Security Policy (European Union) 394, 395, 469, 532, 535, 537
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 539–41, 707
communications
cooperation with the host state 171–2
NATO SOFA 171
supplemental agreements 172–5
UN Model SOFA 170–1
Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 10
Comoros, the 527
Concept of Operations (CONOPS) 346, 396, 534, 537
concurrent jurisdiction 224–7
contractor personnel
Afghanistan 658–9
analysis 140–2
definition 130–1
European Union 136–7
jurisdiction 221–2
NATO SOFA 133–5
overview 127–8
private entrepreneurs 128–9
rise of use 129–30
terminology 130–1
UN Model SOFA 131–3
United States 137–40
counsel, right to 237–8
couriers 170, 172, 354, 554
Crisis Management Concept (CMC) 534
custody
jurisdiction 231–44
customary law
evolution 9–11
Cyprus 270, 387, 425, 729
Czech Republic 134, 254
Czechoslovakia 584, 706, 707
Dayton Peace Agreement 8, 9, 134, 156, 157, 174, 250, 252, 254, 308, 309, 314, 320, 367
death penalty 239–44
deceased members
UN Model SOFA 351–2
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) 602, 624
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) 51, 81, 192, 213, 387, 455, 526, 618, 699
Denmark 19, 239, 579, 583
Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) 48, 121
dependents
children 145
generally 143–4
jurisdiction 220–1
NATO SOFA 147–9
relatives 145–7
spouses 144–5
detention
enforcement of military law 269–71
diplomatic clearance 6–7
direct taxes 357
double jeopardy 229–31
driving licences
Afghanistan 655
NATO international military headquarters 516–17
East Germany 706, 707
East Timor 54, 171, 191, 270
Eastern Europe
claims 292–300
Egypt 16, 50, 131, 216, 268
employment
jurisdiction 255–9
enforcement of military law
arrest 269–71
assistance 267–9
detention 269–71
exercise of jurisdiction 273–4
generally 261
immunity 264–6
international legal assistance 263–4
jurisdiction 262–4
policing 271–3
entry and departure of visiting forces
NATO SOFA 150–3
UN Model SOFA 150–3
UN peace operations 151–2
environment
jurisdiction 246–8
Eritrea 57, 192, 527
Ethiopia 192, 527
EU Global Strategy and Security Policy (EUGS) 535, 536, 537
EU SOFA
generally 4
Euro-NATO Joint Jet Pilot Training Program (ENJJTP) 291
European External Action Service (EEAS) 395, 533
European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI) 36
European Union
conducting military operations 533–5
financing operations 394–8
international military headquarters 532–9
military role of EU 532–3
operational headquarters 535–9
planning military operations 533–5
European Union Force (EUFOR) 312, 394
ex gratia payments 244, 277, 281, 284, 290, 306, 316, 324, 325, 328, 452
exclusive jurisdiction 223–4
extradition
capital punishment 240, 241
jurisdiction 234–5
Faeroe Islands 424
failed State 63
Faroe Islands 424
field headquarters
personnel 458
premises 455–7
supplies and services 457
UN Model SOFA 454–8
financing operations
African Union (AU) 390–4
background 386–8
challenges 386–8
European Union 394–8
generally 386
methods 388–90
force
active duty military personnel 109–11
connection with official duty 113–16
definition 108–16
nationality 116
NATO SOFA definition 108–16
foreign exchange regulations
historical background 371–2
NATO SOFA 381–5
post-WWII developments 372–7
terminology 371–2
UN Model SOFA 378–80
Foreign Military Sales (FMS) 291
(p. 743) Former Yugoslavia
claims 303–4
France 15, 19, 75, 210, 239, 358, 420, 427, 435
freedom of movement 734
Georgia 134, 539, 542, 686, 693, 696, 697, 708
Ghana 25
Gibraltar 425
Greece 238, 239, 319, 422, 435, 461, 533, 583, 704
Greenland 424, 426
Guinea-Bissau 527
Haiti 305–7, 732
claims 305–7
Hawaii 423
health and safety
jurisdiction 251–3
Historical Developments 13–32, 51–2
Host Nation Support (HNS) 119, 133, 134, 342, 347, 348, 349, 500, 512, 611, 634, 730, 731, 734, 736
hostilities
applicability during crisis or war 436–9
human rights
UN peace operations 65
Hungary 157, 160, 161, 164, 174, 227, 228, 250, 254, 258, 259, 367, 422, 584, 706, 707
claims 292–8
identity cards
NATO international military headquarters 506–7
immigration control
NATO international military headquarters 514–16
immunity
case law 81–3
enforcement of military law 264–6
from jurisdiction 75–6, 207–31
international organizations 79–80
legal doctrine 83–4
locally recruited staff 88
military personnel 85–7
NATO international military headquarters 84–5, 487–94
States 75–9
status agreements of the ICRC 552–4
Implementation Force (Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina) 8, 48, 54, 118, 134, 160, 174, 250, 252, 254, 258, 296, 308–17
imports
arms 203–4
India 16, 50, 620
indirect taxes 357
Indonesia 270
insurance
vehicles 164–6
International Force in East Timor (INTERFET) 54, 270
international law
national law, relationship with 6–8
international military headquarters
African Union (AU) 526–31
applicable law 448–50
background 75
case law 81–3
civilian staff 88
claims 451–2
Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) 541
Commonwealth of Independent States 539–40
definition 443–4
European Union 532–9
generally 75–6, 443
governing documents 444–6
immunities 451
international organizations 79–81
jurisdiction 448–50
legal doctrine 83–4
legal personality 447–8
locally recruited staff 88
privileges 451
Schooner Exchange 75–6
settlement of disputes 452–3
sources of State immunity 76–9
special representatives 84–5
status of different actors 450–1
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
Additional Protocols 547
components 558
establishment 545–6
Geneva Convention 1949 546–7
impartiality 545
independence 545
international humanitarian law 548–9
legal status 549–50
mandate 546–9
neutrality 545
relations with military bodies 570–2
role 546–9
statutes 547–8
International Security Force (Kosovo) (KFOR) 40, 48, 54, 118, 135, 317–20
interrogation 237
Iran 684
Iraq 16, 29, 31, 39, 73, 127, 136, 138, 139, 140, 194, 235, 271, 326, 537, 616, 618, 619, 620, 656, 657, 666, 728, 730, 732
Israel 50
Italy 19, 162, 239, 533, 583
Jammu 50
Japan 16–17
Japan Self-Defence Forces (JSDF) 594, 620
Joint Commissions
administration 406
authority 404–6
background 401–2
operation 404–6
purpose 402
structure 402–4
jurisdiction
administrative jurisdiction 246–59
appeals 238
arrest 231–44
civil jurisdiction 244–6
concurrent jurisdiction 224–7
contractors 221–2
counsel, right to 237–8
criminal jurisdiction 217–44, 734–5
custody 231–44
death penalty 239–44
decision 222–31
dependents 220–1
double jeopardy 229–31
employment 255–9
enforcement of military law 262–4
environment 246–8
exclusive jurisdiction 223–4
execution of sentences 238–9
extradition 234–5
health and safety 251–3
immunity 207–8
international military headquarters 448–50
interrogation 237
legal hold over civilians 234
legal hold over military personnel 233
members of a civilian component 219–20
members of a force 217–19
NATO SOFA 205–60
(p. 744) ne bis in idem 229–31
real estate 248–51
rights of accused 236–7
settlement of disputes 416–17
special treaty regimes 213–17
status-of-forces agreements 209–13
surrender to foreign authorities 236
territorial sovereignty 208
traffic 253–5
UN Model SOFA 205–60
waiver of right to exercise jurisdiction 227–9
Kashmir 50
Kazakhstan 542, 692, 693, 708
Kenya 618
Korea
generally 623
Korean Augmentation to the US Army (KATUSA) 623, 647–9
Meyer Agreement 645–7
Republic of Korea-United States Combined Forces Command (CFC) 625–7
United Nations Command (UNC) 623–5
United States Forces Korea (USFK) 627
United States-Republic of Korea SOFA 627–43
Kosovo
claims 317–20
Kuwait 618
Kyrgyz Republic 134, 714
Kyrgyzstan 539, 542, 693, 708
land operations 430
law of the flag 154, 159, 181, 183, 209, 216, 217, 262, 715
law of the receiving state
administration procedures 99–102
administrative law 100
application of receiving state law 97–9
areas of non-application 103–4
function of the obligation to respect law 104–5
generally 94–7
mode of application 102–3
private law 99–100
public law 100
leave, personnel on 111–12
Lebanon 379, 456, 550, 616
Liberia 527
Libya 73, 330, 699, 700
licences
NATO SOFA 154–8
UN Model SOFA 154–8
logistic support
generally 339–40
international organizations 340–6
medical assistance 347–9
NATO SOFA 342–5
planning 346–7
support arrangements 346–7
UN Model SOFA 340–1
Luxembourg 239, 281, 579, 583
Macedonia 254, 319
Madeira 422
Malawi 437
Mali 532, 533, 536
medical assistance 347–9
members of visiting forces 106–19
accredited personnel 111
active duty military personnel 109–11
collective units 111
connection with official duty 113–16
definition of force 108–16
generally 106
leave, personnel on 111–12
military personnel 108–16
nationality 116
presence in territory of contracting party 112–13
supplementary agreements 117–19
UN peace operations 106–7
messes
NATO international military headquarters 520–1
Military Armistice Commission (MAC) 624, 625
Military Demarcation Line (MDL) 602, 624
military law enforcement 261
military personnel
definition 108–16
deployment 85–7
Military Planning and Conduct Capability (European Union) (MPCC) 536–9
Moldova 539, 541, 542, 692, 693
multinational military operations
ad hoc units 39–42
command and control 43–8
generally 33
NATO operations 43–6
permanent military units 33–9
personnel 36–9
present agreements 34–6
standby arrangements 42–3
Namibia 121
national law
international law, relationship with 6–8
National Red Cross
bilateral operations 567
conditions of recognition 559–62
establishment 559
generally 558
law to be observed 568–70
mandate 562–5
multinational operations 565–7
origins 558–9
role 562–5
tasks 562–5
unilateral operations 567–8
nationality
members of visiting forces 116
NATO international military headquarters
application of the Paris Protocol 470–3
assets 494–5
background 459–61, 461–3
bank accounts 495–7
cafeterias 520–1
canteens 520–1
contractors 512
driving licences 516–17
excise duties 505–6
fiscal privileges 497–503, 517–24
flag and general officers 513–14
identity cards 506–7
immigration control 514–16
immunity 487–94
import and export of goods 503–4
income tax exemption 518–20
inviolability of headquarters 487–94
law of the receiving state 467–70
legal status 482–6
local civilian employees 511
messes 520–1
NATO SOFA 473–81
non-residence 514–16
Ottawa Agreement 466–7
Paris Protocol 459–61, 463–5, 470–524
passport control 514–16
personal effects and furniture 522–3
private motor vehicles for personal use 523–4
resale of goods 506
right to hold currency 495–8
staff members 507–24
supplementary agreements 481–2
Supreme Commander 461
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) 461–2
(p. 745) NATO operations 43–6
NATO Response Force 33
NATO SOFA
application of rules 9–10
civilian components 123–6
claims 282–92
communications 171
contractor personnel 133–5
dependents 143–9
entry and departure of visiting forces 150–3
force 108–16
foreign exchange regulations 381–5
generally 4
historical development 13–14
jurisdiction 205–60
licences 154–8
members of visiting forces 106–19
modifications 7
NATO international military headquarters 473–81
negotiations 19–26
other agreements compared 28
parliamentary debates 19–26
permits 154–8
pre-WWII position 13–16
precedent, as 26–7
premises 177–86
respect for law of receiving state 94–105
settlement of disputes 413–17
supplemental arrangements 408–12
supplementary provisions 10
tax and customs exemptions 357–62, 363
territorial application 419–31
transport 187–97
travel 187–97
uniform 168
vehicles 159–66
naval operations 427–9
ne bis in idem 229–31
Netherlands 145, 149, 162, 239, 240, 255, 265, 272, 281, 358, 382, 383, 421–2, 470, 495, 515, 516, 579, 584, 599, 637
New Zealand 265, 268
Newfoundland 420
Nicaragua 711
9/11 29
Norway 19, 162, 426, 479, 583, 667
Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan) (OEF) 323, 325, 650, 653, 655–62, 681
operational deployment
bilateral State, deployment in 731–2
checklist 736–9
claims 735
command and control 733
contractors 735
criminal jurisdiction 734–5
deployment of NATO forces 730–1
freedom of movement 734
generally 727
interpretation of agreements 736
legal background of the mission 727–32
national stovepipes 736
policing 735
regional organizations 731
respect for receiving State law 734
sensitive issues 732–6
supporting UN peace operations 728–30
out-of-area deployments
meaning 8–9
Pakistan 50, 321–2, 334, 651, 684
claims 321–2
Panmunjom 602, 624
Partnership-for-Peace programme 5, 9, 588–9
passport control
NATO international military headquarters 514–16
permits
NATO SOFA 154–8
UN Model SOFA 154–8
PfP SOFA
generally 5–6
personnel 36–7
Philippines 21
piracy
Russian forces 700
Poland 584, 706, 707, 714
Portugal 422, 583
premises
duties and rights of the host state 179–80
duties and rights of the sending state 180–3
generally 178–9
NATO SOFA 177–86
practical examples 183–4
UN Model SOFA 177–86
private law 99–100
private security contractors
Afghanistan 659–62
procurement 612
public law 100
real estate
jurisdiction 248–51
rebus sic stantibus 436
registration of privately owned vehicles 162–4
registration of service vehicles 159–62
relatives
dependents 145–7
Resolute Support (Afghanistan) (RS) 140, 271, 327, 678–9
respect for Receiving State law 94–105
revision of treaties
formal revision 433
generally 432
regular review 432–3
rule of law 83, 121, 193, 243, 316, 336, 338, 426, 595, 596, 598
Russian forces
armed attacks against Russian forces 698
engagement of terrorists outside Russia 697–8
Federal Constitutional Law on Martial Law (2002) 694–700
generally 686–7
national security powers 687–94
non-Treaty based deployment 701–4
participation in international peace operations 697
piracy 700
protection of citizens abroad 698–700
repulsion of armed attacks 698
Treaty-based deployment 704–11
Rwanda 54, 171, 527, 550, 618, 730
Saudi Arabia 651
self-defence
arms 202–3
personal self-defence 202
unit self-defence 203
settlement of disputes
jurisdiction 416–17
NATO SOFA 413–17
practical application 415–16
scope 415–16
UN Model SOFA 413–17
Seychelles 137, 711
Sierra Leone 192, 527
Situations in Areas Surrounding Japan 594
Slovak Republic 254
Slovenia 134, 254
Somalia 53, 57, 191, 301, 392, 393, 527, 531, 532, 533, 618, 619, 730
South America 9
South Ossetia 686, 696, 697, 703, 708, 709, 710
Spain 231, 232, 239, 358, 422, 425, 427, 583, 588, 589
(p. 746) spouses
dependents 144–5
stationing forces in Germany
Federal Republic of Germany 579–82
generally 577–8
German Democratic Republic 582
international military headquarters 581
jus ad praesentiam 579–80
jus in praesentia 580–1
multinational units, participation in 586
NATO agencies 582
occupation after WWII 578–9
Partnership for Peace 588–9
Supplementary Agreement to NATO SOFA, revision of 585–6
Treaty on German Unity 582–3
unification (1990) 582–9
Visiting Forces Act 1995 586–8
withdrawal of Russian forces 584–5
stationing forces in Japan
background 591–4
challenges, future 619–21
definitions 605–8
facilities and areas 608–9
foreign criminal jurisdiction 613–14
Gulf War 616–17
key provisions of SOFAs 605–14
legal status of Self-Defence Force 617–19
local labour 613
local procurement 612
operations 609–11
overseas activities of Japan during Cold War 615–16
taxes 612–13
United Nations Command (UNC) 602–4
United States forces 594–602
status agreements of the ICRC
application of agreements 556
contents 552–6
immunity 552–4
interpretation 556
legal nature 551
legal personality 552
negotiation 551
preamble 552
privileges 552–4
purpose 550–1
representatives 554–6
staff 554–6
Status-of-Forces Agreements (SOFAs)
cooperation 7
generally 3
objectives of law 5
purpose 4
storage
arms 200
Sudan 106, 171, 172, 193, 455, 650
Suez crisis 51
supplemental arrangements
generally 408–9
NATO SOFA 408–12
subject matter 409–12
UN Model SOFA 408–12
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) 461–2
surrender to foreign authorities 236
Switzerland 254
Tajikstan 539, 542, 693, 708
tax and customs exemptions
customs 362–9
direct taxation exemption 357
EU VAT Directive 360–2
indirect taxation exemption 357
NATO SOFA 357–62, 363
overview 356–7
supplementary agreements 358–60
UN Model SOFA 353–69, 368–9
termination
NATO SOFA 434–5
UN Model SOFA 434–5
territorial application
aerial operations 429–30
Algeria 424
British Overseas Territories 425
Canada 419–20
Faeroe Islands 424
France 420, 427
Germany 420–1
Greenland 424
land operations 430
NATO SOFA 425–31
naval operations 427–9
Netherlands 421–2
Portugal 422
Spain 422, 427
Tropic of Cancer 424–5
Turkey 422
UN Model SOFA 418–19
USA 423
territorial sovereignty 208
traffic
jurisdiction 253–5
transport
arms 200
duties and rights of host state 188
duties and rights of the UN and sending states 189–91
NATO SOFA 187–97
practical application 191–6
UN Model SOFA 187–97
travel
duties and rights of host state 188
duties and rights of the UN and sending states 189–91
NATO SOFA 187–97
practical application 191–6
UN Model SOFA 187–97
treaties
UN peace operations 60–4
Turkey 239, 422, 461, 583
Turkmenistan 539
Uganda 137, 171, 265
Ukraine 394, 539, 541, 584, 692, 693, 703, 709
UN headquarters in the field 454–8
UN Model SOFA
application of rules 10–11
civilian components 120–2
communications 170–1
contractor personnel 131–3
deceased members 351–2
entry and departure of visiting forces 150–3
field headquarters 454–8
foreign exchange regulations 378–80
generally 5
jurisdiction 205–60
licences 154–8
logistic support 340–1
permits 154–8
premises 177–86
respect for law of Receiving State 94–105
settlement of disputes 413–17
supplemental arrangements 408–12
tax and customs exemptions 353–69, 368–9
termination 434–5
territorial application 418–19
transport 187–97
travel 187–97
uniform 167–8
vehicles 159–66
UN peace operations
command and control 46–8, 68–71
conduct of hostilities 65–8
dispute settlement 72–3
established practice 73–4
functions 52–4
generally 50–1
historical development 51–2
host state consent 55–6
human rights 65
internal UN rules 68
(p. 747) international law 54–73, 64–8
jurisdiction 71–2
military observers 58–9
mission-specific arrangements 55–60
other legal instruments 57–8
participating states, relationship with 58–9
resources 72
rules of the UN 59–60
status-of-forces agreement 56–8
treaties 60–4
weapons 72
uniforms 167–8, 655
generally 167–8
NATO SOFA 168
UN Model SOFA 167–8
UN peace operations 168
United Arab Emirates 651
United Kingdom 358
United Nations Command (UNC) 623–5
United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) 305, 306, 321
United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) 53, 199, 201
United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA) 172
USA 16–18, 19, 20, 24, 75, 137–40, 239, 358, 423
claims 290–1
USSR 13
Uzbekistan 134, 539, 542
VAT
NATO international military headquarters 504–5
vehicles
insurance 164–6
NATO SOFA 159–66
registration of privately owned vehicles 162–4
registration of service vehicles 159–62
UN Model SOFA 159–66
Venezuela 711
visiting forces
objectives of law 3–6
role 3
WWII, during 16–19
Warsaw Pact Agreements 26–7
weapons
UN peace operations 72
West German 19
West Germany 19
World War II
visiting forces during 16–18