- Human rights remedies — Armed conflict, international — Armed conflict, non-international — International crimes
This chapter deals with cyber operations undertaken by States during situations of armed conflict. Cyber operations may be divided into two broad categories: cyber operations involving monitoring activities and cyber operations involving effects-based activities. Cyber operations involving monitoring activities collect or gather information but do not modify or interfere with that information in any way. They are passive operations. Effects-based cyber operations are those operations that are not restricted to passive monitoring and which produce a tangible effect, either in cyber space or in the material world. The chapter discusses cyber operations as an ‘attack’ within armed conflict; determining the applicable legal framework; relevant international human rights law requirements; cyber operations and direct participation in hostilities; and cyber operations involving non-State actors occurring in the context of armed conflict.
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